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Yajur Veda mentions that the waters with which Varuna is connected are the waters of the atmosphere. These waters are described as Apah, Maha-salilam the great waters which denote primeval matter from which the manifest world emerges. Aditi the great mother of all gods is also said to give birth to the manifest world. Aditi is thus equated with Apah. As Apah, Aditi is the creative energy which is active (YV.10.7).That is, Aditi the mother of all gods is Prakrti and Shakthi the manifesting or the creative power. The notion of her divinity rests upon her power as a woman, a womb or a mother to give birth to and to bring forth life and existence.

Varuna (son of Aditi) who resides among these waters (Apah) is therefore called the child of the waters (Apam shishu) in the best of mothers. It is explained; the expression ‘best of mothers’ refers to the protective and nourishing nature of the waters as mothers. They are the gracious guides and protective mothers; and, Varuna is their child.

[It is also said; since Varuna dwells in waters he was also called Apam Napat (Apam = water; Napat = fire), ‘Son of the Waters’ (RV.1.2.35). Apam Napat is also referred to as the embryo (garbha) of the waters (RV.7.9.3). It is said; the sun when he sinks into waters – to quench his thirst – becomes Varuna the fire in the waters (Apam Napat).

In the Yajna

Yajur Veda is the book of Yajnas. During an Yajna, Varuna along with Mitra is invoked and invited to take seat on the North side of the altar Yajna-vedi and requested to protect Rta the law of nature ; and also to bring good rains (YV. 2.3; 2.16). The invitation to Varuna to occupy the seat on the North is interesting. North is the direction of the gods; it is the direction of Soma initially (as per Brih. Upanishad) and then of Kubera the sub-divine who is friendly with gods. Thus, in Yajur Veda, Varuna was still the major god of the Yajna. In the later texts Varuna was, however, assigned a seat on the West where the sun sinks into sea and into the night.

The hymns in Atharva Veda in praise of Varuna ‘the most impressive deity among all the Vedic gods’ are lofty, more devout and ethical in tone. They pray for purity, forgiveness, and release from sins, and for moral strength against sinning further. The hymns rise to a pitch of exaltation as they sing the splendour of Varuna. In these hymns Varuna, more than any other Vedic god, appears as a mighty and merciful.

Of the many soulful hymns submitted to Varuna, the sixteenth hymn in the fourth book of the Atharva Veda sung by sage Vashista celebrating Varuna’s power and omniscience is often quoted and hailed by scholars as being among the most devote and forceful hymns in the Vedic literature

While mentioning his connection with waters Varuna is referred to as– Apam-adhipathi the Lord who resides in the primeval waters. These waters are described as of golden hue, pure and purifying; and, they are the material cause for creation (AV.1.33.1-3)

The Brahmanas, especially the Shatapatha Brahmana (SB) carry elaborate discussions about the relationship that exists between truth (Sathya) and waters. It said; truth is the same as waters for waters are the truth. Hence: ’whereby waters flow that is the form of truth. It is the waters indeed that were first made in the universe. When waters flow everything whatever that exists is produced.”(SB.10.5.4.1). Waters also symbolize the law. Water causes everything to exist and to grow in order. The waters are the reality (SB.7.6.1.4) and represent immortality (Amrtatavam va Apah – SB.1.9.3.7). They are the faith (Shraddaha) in life (Tai.Br.3.2.4.1). All gods and all beings are water; as they are the foundation and the ultimate source of the universe; and everything is contained in them (SB 10.5.4.4.15).

Varuna in Aranyakas

Varuna is briefly discussed in the Aitareya Aranyaka at two places; and both refer to Varuna’s mystical association with waters. There are no allusions to his Vedic glory as the sky-god, or as the king or as the governor of the laws.

The waters referred to in these passages are philosophical suggestions as they denote the primeval waters or the primeval matter. Here, the creation of waters and of Varuna comes about as an expression of the Supreme Being’s will or desire. It is metaphorically said that they were born out of the manas the mind of the Supreme Being. Varuna is the mythical symbol of primeval matter. Thus, philosophically, waters and Varuna stand for Prakrti or the Becoming. It is the first stage of manifest world.

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Yajur Veda mentions that the waters with which Varuna is connected are the waters of the atmosphere. These waters are described as Apah, Maha-salilam the great waters which denote primeval matter from which the manifest world emerges. Aditi the great mother of all gods is also said to give birth to the manifest world. Aditi is thus equated with Apah. As Apah, Aditi is the creative energy which is active (YV.10.7).That is, Aditi the mother of all gods is Prakrti and Shakthi the manifesting or the creative power. The notion of her divinity rests upon her power as a woman, a womb or a mother to give birth to and to bring forth life and existence.

Varuna (son of Aditi) who resides among these waters (Apah) is therefore called the child of the waters (Apam shishu) in the best of mothers. It is explained; the expression ‘best of mothers’ refers to the protective and nourishing nature of the waters as mothers. They are the gracious guides and protective mothers; and, Varuna is their child.

[It is also said; since Varuna dwells in waters he was also called Apam Napat (Apam = water; Napat = fire), ‘Son of the Waters’ (RV.1.2.35). Apam Napat is also referred to as the embryo (garbha) of the waters (RV.7.9.3). It is said; the sun when he sinks into waters – to quench his thirst – becomes Varuna the fire in the waters (Apam Napat).

In the Yajna

Yajur Veda is the book of Yajnas. During an Yajna, Varuna along with Mitra is invoked and invited to take seat on the North side of the altar Yajna-vedi and requested to protect Rta the law of nature ; and also to bring good rains (YV. 2.3; 2.16). The invitation to Varuna to occupy the seat on the North is interesting. North is the direction of the gods; it is the direction of Soma initially (as per Brih. Upanishad) and then of Kubera the sub-divine who is friendly with gods. Thus, in Yajur Veda, Varuna was still the major god of the Yajna. In the later texts Varuna was, however, assigned a seat on the West where the sun sinks into sea and into the night.

The hymns in Atharva Veda in praise of Varuna ‘the most impressive deity among all the Vedic gods’ are lofty, more devout and ethical in tone. They pray for purity, forgiveness, and release from sins, and for moral strength against sinning further. The hymns rise to a pitch of exaltation as they sing the splendour of Varuna. In these hymns Varuna, more than any other Vedic god, appears as a mighty and merciful.

Of the many soulful hymns submitted to Varuna, the sixteenth hymn in the fourth book of the Atharva Veda sung by sage Vashista celebrating Varuna’s power and omniscience is often quoted and hailed by scholars as being among the most devote and forceful hymns in the Vedic literature

While mentioning his connection with waters Varuna is referred to as– Apam-adhipathi the Lord who resides in the primeval waters. These waters are described as of golden hue, pure and purifying; and, they are the material cause for creation (AV.1.33.1-3)

The Brahmanas, especially the Shatapatha Brahmana (SB) carry elaborate discussions about the relationship that exists between truth (Sathya) and waters. It said; truth is the same as waters for waters are the truth. Hence: ’whereby waters flow that is the form of truth. It is the waters indeed that were first made in the universe. When waters flow everything whatever that exists is produced.”(SB.10.5.4.1). Waters also symbolize the law. Water causes everything to exist and to grow in order. The waters are the reality (SB.7.6.1.4) and represent immortality (Amrtatavam va Apah – SB.1.9.3.7). They are the faith (Shraddaha) in life (Tai.Br.3.2.4.1). All gods and all beings are water; as they are the foundation and the ultimate source of the universe; and everything is contained in them (SB 10.5.4.4.15).

Varuna in Aranyakas

Varuna is briefly discussed in the Aitareya Aranyaka at two places; and both refer to Varuna’s mystical association with waters. There are no allusions to his Vedic glory as the sky-god, or as the king or as the governor of the laws.

The waters referred to in these passages are philosophical suggestions as they denote the primeval waters or the primeval matter. Here, the creation of waters and of Varuna comes about as an expression of the Supreme Being’s will or desire. It is metaphorically said that they were born out of the manas the mind of the Supreme Being. Varuna is the mythical symbol of primeval matter. Thus, philosophically, waters and Varuna stand for Prakrti or the Becoming. It is the first stage of manifest world.

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Yes there are many mantras in the Vedas which are for rains. In fact yajnas are primarily performed for the well being of all the living creatures. Through the smoke of the yajnas the clouds are invoked and attracted to bring rain. Rain helps the flora and fauna thus creating the necessary balance in the ecosystem.

All living bodies subsist on food grains, which are produced from rain. Rains are produced by performance of yajna [sacrifice], and yajna is born of prescribed duties.

(Geeta 3.14)

There are several instances when rain has came on the last day of grand yajnas like agnistoma.

Varuna yaagam is frequently held at the famous Tirumala Tirupati temple. It has brought good rains many times.

This year also Varuna yaga was conducted there.