The Vedas are the eternal truths of God, Apaurusheya and constant throughout Time. Therefore they must contain all knowledge of all time. But (at least if you go through the other questions) you find that the prominent incarnation used to describe Lord Vishnu is that of Upendra - Vamana Avatara.

Now the Vamana avatara didn't happen until the Vaivasvata Manvantara of the present Kalpa - which is seven Manvantaras from the beginning. Yet if the Vedas are constant, the very same hymns to Vamanadeva would be present even in the earlier Manvantaras. But then, how would people associate with this yet to be incarnated Form of Vishnu?

Also prominently described in the Rig Veda (at least to my knowledge) is the defeat of Vritrasura, which also happened at the beginning of this particular Manvantara. So what would the others of the earlier Manvantaras made of all these (prophetic?) stories? And what would the other Indras have thought about them?

P.S. I know that last sentence is highly speculative.

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    you need to specify which vedic verses exactly, otherwise your question is mere speculation that it is even in the vedas. – Swami Vishwananda Jan 12 '16 at 10:09
  • @SwamiVishwananda since I have not read the Vedas myself I am going by Keshav Srinivasan's answers - he seems to vouch for this fact. – Surya Jan 12 '16 at 11:18
  • You may be interested in my question here, about the views of the Purva Mimamsa school and the Vedanta school on this subject: hinduism.stackexchange.com/q/9382/36 – Keshav Srinivasan Feb 3 '16 at 14:28
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    'if you go through the other questions': Can you please add a link to "other questions" to show some sample questions or answers, or point to search results? (IMO, users should not have to guess what you might be referring to) – sv. Feb 4 '16 at 17:15

It's because certain names and events recur. From our perspective, the mantras found in Samhitas of the Vedas discuss how our Indra, known as Purandara, defeated a demon named Vritrasura in the present Vaivasvata Manvantara, and how Vishnu incarnated as Vamana, the little brother of the present Indra, and defeated an Asura named Mahabali. And certainly when we chant (say) Rig Veda mantras in a Yagna, those Vaivasvata Manvantara events are exactly what we should be thinking of.

But the Vedas are broader than that. As described in the text of the question, the mantras found in the Samhitas of the Vedas are timeless eternal truths that are constantly reverberating in the Universe. And they make reference not just to individual people, but rather to certain roles that are played by different people in different ages. Here is what Adi Shankaracharya says in his commentary on the Brahma Sutras:

Similarly, although individual gods are admitted to originate, there arises no contradiction in the case of such words as Vasu, and the like, since the species denoted by them are eternal. And that the gods, and so on, belong to different species, is to be concluded from the descriptions of their various personal appearance, such as given in the mantras, arthavâdas, &c. Terms such as 'Indra' rest on the connexion (of some particular being) with some particular place, analogously to terms such as 'army-leader;' hence, whoever occupies that particular place is called by that particular name.

And later on he quotes some Smriti text which makes the same point:

Whatever were the names of the rishis and their powers to see the Vedas, the same the Unborn one again gives to them when they are produced afresh at the end of the night (the mahâpralaya). As the various signs of the seasons return in succession in their due time, thus the same beings again appear in the different yugas. And of whatever individuality the gods of the past ages were, equal to them are the present gods in name and form.

So when the Vedas speak of Indra defeating Vritra, they are not just speaking of our Indra but of all the Indras who each confront a demon called Vritrasura. And when they speak of Vishnu taking three steps of land, they're not just talking about Vishnu's present Vamana incarnation, but about all of his Vamana incarnations. And indeed, in my question here I found out about at least two other Vamana incarnations that have taken place in the present Kalpa.

By the way, in this answer I'm giving the viewpoint of the Vedanta school, which is the school of philosophy followed by almost all Hindus today as I discuss here. But there used to be another school of philosophy called the Purva Mimamsa school, and they believed that there are absolutely no names of human beings in the Vedas at all! I think that's patently false, but see my question here for their viewpoint.

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    Thanks for the quotes from Shankara. So by all Indras and all Vamanas do you mean those from the previous Kalpa? – Surya Feb 3 '16 at 15:30
  • @Surya I mean all the Indras from all the Manavantaras, past, present, and future. Regardless of what Manvantara a person happens to live in, mantras praising Indra for killing Vritrasura apply to their Indra. – Keshav Srinivasan Feb 3 '16 at 15:40
  • But there cannot be multiple Vrtrasuras, since he appears only once from Tvashta's sacrifice. – Surya Feb 3 '16 at 15:46
  • @Surya Like I said, certain names and events recur. A different sage may created a demon called Vritrasura in the past, or a previous Vritrasura could have originated in a completely different manner than in a Yagna. No matter what, each Indra will have to face someone named Vritrasura. – Keshav Srinivasan Feb 3 '16 at 15:50
  • @Surya By the way, this isn't just the opinion of Adi Shankaracharya, all the commentators on the Brahma Sutras agree on this point. – Keshav Srinivasan Feb 3 '16 at 15:52

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