Muhurtham is an auspicious time selected for starting or performing an important event/action in life. Muhurtham is a Hindu unit of measurement for time in the Hindu calendar. A Muhurtham equals 2 Ghadiyas or approximately 48 minutes. It is stated in Manu Samhita that eighteen nimeshas (twinkling of the eye, are one kashtha), thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one Muhurtham, and as many (Muhurthams) one day and night.
It is a natural desire of every one that any of the above events or occasions in our life should be trouble free any unwanted, unpleasant or sorrowful incident should not take place during these important events or occasions. If these events or occasions are started on a shubha Muhurtham (auspicious time), these events are completed peacefully.
There is an ancient principal told in Ayurveda, “Ashtami Vyadhi nashini” which means that the medicine taken on the 8th day of a lunar month cures illness faster. The reason behind this is the distance between the Moon & the earth is situated at the greatest distance on the 8th day of every month, because of which the liquid medicine remains stable in the stomach & thereby starts making effect faster & better.
Muhurtham is a tool to harmonize your forces with nature and improve your chances of success. Five elements are chosen carefully for success in any new venture, namely Vara (weekday), Tithi (lunar day), Nakshatra (asterism), Yoga and Karana. These elements are easily determined through the planetary positions and are explicitly listed in Ephemeris or Panchanga. In addition, for selecting a propitious moment or Muhurtham, the Ascendant and Moon must be strong, both at the time selected as well as in relation to the horoscope of the concerned individual.
The gravitational force between the planets of the solar system make a lot of difference on the living & nonliving things on the earth. E.g. the gravitational force between the Moon & the earth causes the high & low tides in the ocean. Muhurtham is a typical combination of the planets in the sky which make a favorable effect on the human beings.
Astrology has a necessary relation with time. It deals with the effects of planetary motions including the sun and the moon. Its basic tenet is the confirmed scientific fact of the effects of radiation on all terrestrial phenomena. That the Hindus discovered it ages before is a testimony to the intelligence and accomplishments of that generation. The effect of sun’s rays on biological activity and those of the moon on psychological processes is well-established. Agricultural activities like planting, cultivation, growth, maturity and harvest are all dependent upon seasonal changes and solar radiation.
Brahma muhurtham the Sun god spreads his rays just as a peacock spreading its feathers. He starts spreading his light and energy throughout the world. The light rays from the Galaxies influence the human brain. The nascent sun spreads thousand arms in the form of rays across the sky, which emit light-blue divine rays. These rays bring to life the cells and the brain. Lord Surya or the sun god is also the god of life. If the man can synchronize his senses with these rays during this hour he will be empowered with unchallengeable energy.
The sages and munis spread the power of penance, which comes out in the form of high powered electrical and magnetic charge, for the upliftment of the living creatures on the earth. If one keeps awake during these hours, it is possible to benefit from this charge. The rays of this light affect the human brain positively. These rays are light-blue. The cells in the brain get activated. The rest of nature is pleasant and peaceful during this time. The mind, as has been proved also by Western science, is a powerful tool to awaken and spread electrical and magnetic charges. These uplift the individual who performs meditation and penance during this time. Your mind is working in ideal conditions and you find answers to your problems since the brain is calm. In the night, the atmosphere gets re-charged and in the early morning, the wind is charged with the beneficial rays of the moon and stars. This wind is called ‘Veeravayu’ which is greatly beneficial to us. Our minds are sharpened and inspired, and our bodies are filled with a new life-force.
A muhurtham is measured as 30 kalas which is made up of 30 kashthas which in turn is made up of 18 nimeshas (the number of twinkling of an eye is one kashtha).
No. Name Quality Time
1 Rudra Bad Sunrise – 48mins
2 Āhi Bad 2nd - 48mins
3 Mitra good 3rd – 48mins
4 Pitṛ bad 4th – 48mins
5 Vasu Good 5th – 48mins
6 Vārāh good 6th – 48mins
7 Viśvadevā good 7th – 48mins
8 Vidhi good - except Mondays and Fridays 8th – 48mins
9 Satamukhi good 9th – 48mins
10 Puruhūta bad 10th – 48mins
11 Vāhini bad 11th – 48mins
12 Naktanakarā bad 12th – 48mins
13 Varuṇa good 13th – 48mins
14 Aryamā good - except Sundays 14th – 48mins
15 Bhaga bad 15th – 48mins
16 Giriśa bad 16th – 48mins
17 Ajapāda bad 17th – 48mins
18 Ahira Budhnya good 18th – 48mins
19 Puṣa good 19th – 48mins
20 Aśvinī good 20th – 48mins
21 Yama bad 21st – 48mins
22 Agni good 22nd – 48mins
23 Vidhātṛ good 23rd – 48mins
24 Kaṇḍa good 24th – 48mins
25 Aditi good 25th – 48mins
26 Jiva/Amr̥ta very good 26th – 48mins
27 Viṣṇu good 27th – 48mins
28 Yumigadyuti good 28th – 48mins
29 Brahma very good 29th – 48mins
30 Samudrama good 30th – 48mins
Rahu kalam, Gulika Kalam, Yama Ghandam and Vishaghati are the time periods which are especially considered inauspicious or unlucky (Ashubh).
Rahu Kalam is one of the 8 segments of the day and considered inauspicious period in Indian astrology due to its association with malefic, Rahu. The segments are calculated by taking the total time between sunrise and sunset, at a given place, and then dividing this time duration by 8.
Of the 9 planets in Vedic astrology, Rahu and Ketu are not physical bodies, they are sensitive points called lunar nodes on the intersection of the ecliptic (the apparent path of motion of the Sun) by the Moon's orbit. Rahu is the northern node and Ketu is the southern node. Ancient astronomers felt that the mighty Rahu and Ketu have the strength to obscure the sun, thus causing a solar eclipse. Hence it is considered inauspicious to begin any undertaking during this "Rahu Kalam". Every day this Rahu Kalam lasts for around 90 minutes, but the duration differs according to the length of the time between sunrise to sunset.
To calculate Rahu Kalam, the time between the sunrise and sunset is divided into 8 units or time-groups, which time-group will have the Rahu Kalam depends on the weekday. Several websites offer calculation for a given place and time.
For each weekday, Rahu Kalam falls as under:
Sunday - 8th Muhurt (Unit)
Thursday - 6th Muhurt
Monday - 2nd Muhurt Friday - 4th Muhurt
Tuesday - 7th Muhurt Saturday - 3rd Muhurt
Wednesday - 5th Muhurt
The timespan of Rahu Kalam varies each day and needs to be calculated as per the sunrise and sunset time. The times below can be used in absence of access to accurate Rahu Kalam. These times are accurate only if the daylight lasts for 12 hours, and the sunrise is at 6.00 AM. For longer or shorter days, the times need to be adjusted.
In English, the mnemonic phrase is "7.30am Mother Saw Father Wearing The Turban Suddenly"
Mother = Monday (7.30-9.00) The = Thursday (13.30-15.00)
Saw = Saturday (9.00-10.30) Turban = Tuesday (15.00-16.30)
Father = Friday (10.30-12.00) Suddenly = Sunday (16.30-18.00)
Wearing = Wednesday (12.00-13.30)
You might have noticed that all planets other than Rahu and Kethu rule on the allotted one day of the week. Only Rahu and Ketu do not have a day for themselves. Instead, they rule every day, but for one and half hours every day. Yama gandam timings occur today and every day, between sunrise and sunset and change based on the Sunrise and Sunset time.
Yama gandam time changes for every day. General Yamagandam timings of the day
Sunday 1200 - 1330 Thursday 0600 - 0730
Monday 1030 - 1200 Friday 1500 - 1630
Tuesday 0900 - 1030 Saturday 1330 - 1500
Wednesday 0730 - 0900
The exact timing for Yama Gandam is also dependent on the time of sunrise and sun set.
Gulika is an Upagraha, a satellite, that is related to Saturn. It is a theoretical point, and its position is mathematically determined for predictive purposes. Gulika, which is also known as ‘maandi,’ is the offspring of Manda or son of Saturn. It is an imitative planet according to the notion in South India particularly in Kerala. A few consider Gulika and Maandi as diverse concepts.
Vedic astrology makes out a set of two non-luminous shadowy planets, namely Rahu & Ketu. Similarly, there is Gulika (Maandi), and it is believed that it has no physical shape or form, but has a mention in the Puranas.
Varjya or Vishakatika
Varjyam is a bad time present on everyday calculated according to the nakshatram of the day and usually varjyam lasts for 96 mins. During this time 96 any kind of subhakaryam should not be performed.
Abhijit word itself means victorious. Abhijit Muhurtham is the timing at which the event or activity initiated will make the native victorious. The Abhijit Muhuratam becomes more sacred and powerful if it is during shukla paksh, and the day that has other beneficial yogas. This Muhurtham has no dependence on Tithi, Nakshatra, Rasi or month. This Muhurtham is present on every day and its duration is around 48 minutes.
It is believed that, this Muhuratham has special blessings of Lord Vishnu. Also, during this Muhurat only Lord shiva killed the powerful demon Tripurasura.
The Astrological aspect behind the Abhijit Muhurtham is that, this the time when the Sun locates himself in the 10th house from the lagna during that time and 10th represents the house of Karmas, and placement of the Sun means success. The reason why shastras recommend on this is because at mid-day, the Sun is located three signs (equivalent to 6 hrs.) behind the Lagna and thus will be located in the 10th house from the Lagna (each Rasi is a house with Lagna as the 1st house, the houses are counted in the zodiacal direction, 10th house represents one's karma and the success in it). Sun being in the 10th house is auspicious for any activity.
This muhurat can remove all the doshas prevalent at that time. It is also believed that on this muhurat Lord Shiva killed the demon Tripurasur who captured the three worlds, Aakash, Prithvi, Pataal with his immense power.
Abhijit Muhurt starts from 1 ghati (equivalent to 24 minutes) before the Local Noon Time (LNT) & remains till 24 minutes thereafter (total duration 48 minutes) for 12-hour duration of daytime. Its duration varies proportionally according to length of day because in Jyotish a day begins from sun-rise to sun set.
Example- To calculate the abhijit muhurat at any place let’s assume
Sunrise at – 0530
Sunset at -1830
Local Noon Time(LNT)=(1830+0530)/2=12hr
Abhijit Muhurat=LNT± (Sun set- Sun rise)/30
In the above example the length of day is 13 hrs. That is why the standard duration of abhijit muhurat changes from 48 minutes to 52(26x2) minutes.
Exceptions : This muhurat loses its beneficence on Wednesday. Avoid selecting it on Wednesday. Secondly traveling in south direction in this muhurat brings inauspicious results. Finally, this muhurat should be used in emergencies when no other suitable times are available otherwise one may fail to harness the richness of other muhurats available on that day. It is ideal Muhurat to initiate any activity except marriage or Upnayana.
Vara shula (vaara soolai or vara shulai / vara shulam / shoolam) is a guiding principle which advises people to avoid travelling in a particular direction on a particular day of the week. Every day of the week has a shoolam direction and travelling in that direction is considered inauspicious and is sure to bring bad luck, loss of assets etc. Direction in which Lord Shiva's trident (trishul) lies when placed on the ground decides the shula direction.
Shoolam direction for Monday and Saturday is East. It is recommended not to travel from your residence (or from the place you stayed the previous night) in East direction on these days. Similarly, each week day has a shoolam direction which must be avoided. However, if a travel in the said direction is inevitable, there are certain remedial measures which may mitigate the ill effects to a certain extent.