It depends on which Sampradaya you follow. The traditional 2 Vaishnav schools (Sri Vaishnavs and Dvaitins) believe that there is only Vaikuntha. We Gaudiyas believe that there are Vaikuntha planets, but many varieties according to the mood of the devotee. Most of the reference of Goloka comes from Sri Brahma Samhita:
gokulākhyaḿ mahat padam
The superexcellent station of Kṛṣṇa, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Kṛṣṇa.
caturbhiḥ puruṣārthaiś ca
caturbhir hetubhir vṛtam
śūlair daśabhir ānaddham
ūrdhvādho dig-vidikṣv api
aṣṭabhir nidhibhir juṣṭam
aṣṭabhiḥ siddhibhis tathā
manu-rūpaiś ca daśabhir
dik-pālaiḥ parito vṛtam
śyāmair gauraiś ca raktaiś ca
śuklaiś ca pārṣadarṣabhaiḥ
śobhitaḿ śaktibhis tābhir
[The surrounding external plane of Gokula is described in this verse.] There is a mysterious quadrangular place named Śvetadvīpa surrounding the outskirts of Gokula. Śvetadvīpa is divided into four parts on all sides. The abode of Vāsudeva, Sańkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are separately located in each of these four parts. These four divided abodes are enveloped by the fourfold human requirements such as piety, wealth, passion and liberation, as also by the four Vedas, viz., Ṛg, Sāma, Yajur and Atharva, which deal with the mantra and which are the bases of achievements of the fourfold mundane requirements. Ten tridents are fixed in the ten directions, including the zenith and nadir. The eight directions are decorated with the eight jewels of Mahāpadma, Padma, Śańkha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, and Nīla. There are ten protectors [dik-pālas] of the ten directions in the form of mantra. The associates of the hues of blue, yellow, red and white and the extraordinary potencies bearing the names of Vimala, etc., shine on all sides.
In Chaitanya Upanisad, we are also told that Goloka Dhama is divided into two compartments (one for Krsna Lila and one for Gaura Lila):
rahasyasn te vadisyarni—jahnavi-tire navadvipe golokakhye dhamni govindo dvi-bhujo gaurah sarvatma maha-puruso rnahatma maha-yogi tri- gunatitah satva-rupo bhakti Ioke kasyatiti, tad ete sloka bhavanti (5)
Lord Brahma replied, "I will tell you the confidential truth. On the bank of the Jahnavi, in Navadvipa Dhama, which is known as Goloka, Govinda with two arms, golden complexion, the Supersoul, the greatest Personality, the greatest Yogi, the Supreme Being, Who is transcendental to the modes of nature, and Whose form is truth, will appear to manifest devotional service ( bhakti ) in this world. These verses describe that.
There are also many references to Goloka in Narada Pancaratra (tat sarvopari goloke; goloko nitya-vaikuntho yathakaso yatha disah - "The eternal spiritual world of Goloka is situated in the spiritual sky." ), Brahmavaivarta Purana 4.1.14, 4.9.14,15, 4.67.60 and Harivamsa (Visnu Parva 19 - gavam eva tu goloko).
As far as what my Gurudev has told me, there are the Vaikuntha Planets (with all the Visnus with different four hand combination), then there is Ayodhya (where Lord Rama resides), then there is Goloka (where Lord Krsna and Gaura reside).