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If I am correctly informed, even in Satya loka one continues to exist as an independent being. Is somewhere described if and how is one able to leave individual existence behind and completely merge with the absolute?

I have also heard that Kṛṣṇa and Kālikā śaktī may help shed more light on this, but I couldn't find any related information.

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    Merging with absolute is advaita notion , in vishitadvaita there is no merging and even after sayujya(having same experiences as shriman Naryana) ultimate moksha people continue to exist as independent being. – Yogi Jul 17 '16 at 6:52
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    shisha and @Yogi It is not said "independent being" but "individual being". The living entity is always dependent on the Lord, therefore it is not independent. – brahma jijnasa Jul 18 '16 at 19:54
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    @Yogi Yes, brahma jijnasa is right, the Jiva is never "independent". – Keshav Srinivasan Jul 19 '16 at 2:01
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    @shisha Well, there is a difference in understanding of this issue per the different systems of Vedanta. It could be that per understanding of the Advaita system of Vedanta when we realise ourselves as an Atma we stay to be that Atma and thus we are completely one with the Absolute, and we lose our individual existence of a jiva (jivatma). ... – brahma jijnasa Jul 19 '16 at 19:02
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    ... But per understanding of all the systems of Vaishnava Vedanta when we realise ourselves as an atma (jivatma) and the Lord as the huge Atma (paramatma) we stay to be that individual jiva (jivatma) forever, eternally, and thus we never become one with the Absolute completely, and we never lose our individual existence of a jiva, even when we reach Brahman. Thus even when we get moksha (liberation) and when we reach Brahman, we stay to be an individual jivatma, and we have our eternal relationship with our Lord who is paramatma, and that continues forever, eternally. – brahma jijnasa Jul 19 '16 at 19:05
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Here is my preliminary answer. This is per the understanding of the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, but is more or less like in other Vaishnava traditions although there could be some differences in understanding:

Satyaloka is also known as Brahmaloka, it is a planet of god Brahma, who is one of 3 main gods per the Hindu dharma: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva (Rudra). It is said that this is the highest material planet in this material universe, so there is no material planet or world (loka) above it. See, even the word brahmaloka is explained as "planet or world of god Brahma" (brahma -- god Brahma; loka -- planet, the world).
It is said in the Bhagavad-gita 8.16 http://www.vedabase.com/en/bg/8/16 that from the highest planet in the material world (Brahmaloka planet) down to the lowest, all are places of misery wherein repeated birth and death take place, but they who attain to Lord Krishna never take birth again because they are souls who are free or liberated from samsara (repeated births and deaths), ie they have achieved moksha (liberation).
This is also confirmed in the previous verse 8.15 where it is stated that those souls have attained the highest perfection, ie there is no perfection higher than that:
http://www.vedabase.com/en/bg/8/15

After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogīs in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection.

So even if you go to the Satyaloka also known as Brahmaloka (planet of god Brahma), you'll not be liberated from samsara (repeated births and deaths), ie you'll not achieve moksha (liberation). But if you go to the Lord Krishna's own planet or the world, his abode, you'll attain to the highest perfection and you'll be liberated from samsara, and you can stay there forever, eternally, as a liberated soul (mukta soul, or one who has achieved mukti or moksha). Thus the position of the Lord Krishna's planet is higher or superior in quality to the planet of god Brahma.

There is a difference in understanding of this issue per the different systems of Vedanta. It could be that per understanding of the Advaita system of Vedanta when we realize ourselves as an Atma we stay to be that Atma and thus we are completely one with the Absolute, and we lose our individual existence of a jiva (jivatma).
But per understanding of all the systems of Vaishnava Vedanta when we realise ourselves as an atma (jivatma) and the Lord as the huge Atma (Paramatma) we stay to be that individual jiva (jivatma) forever, eternally, and thus we never become one with the Absolute completely, and we never lose our individual existence of a jiva, even when we reach Brahman. Thus even when we get moksha (liberation) and when we reach Brahman, we stay to be an individual jivatma, and we have our eternal relationship with our Lord who is Paramatma, and that continues forever, eternally.

Thus per the Vaishnava systems of Vedanta when you realize yourself as a soul (jivatma) in the relationship with your Lord (Paramatma), ie Lord Krishna, you go to his supreme abode or planet called Goloka that is said to be in Vaikuntha eternal world. There you can stay eternally as a liberated soul achieved moksha (liberation).
That is the highest possible achievement and a spiritual perfection for the soul, and there is nothing higher than this. Vaishnava systems do not accept an idea that a jiva soul (jivatma) can lose his individual existence as a jiva soul and completely became one with Brahman. According to the Vaishnava systems a jiva soul (jivatma) stay to exist eternally as one individual with Brahman (or Paramatma) who is also eternal but other individual in the form of Lord Krishna (Vishnu or Narayana), there in his eternal abode of Vaikuntha.

Kailash is said to be the abode of Lord Rudra (Shiva) in this material world. So it is not eternal and it is not superior in quality to the material planets of the material world. Thus it's not an abode of eternal mukti or moksha (liberation) from samsara.
I'm not sure what you wanted to ask about shakti.

Update:

There are many Shaiva traditions, and as far as I know some of them believe philosophical concepts similar to Vaishnavas, like I said above in the answer just as Vaishnavas who are devotees (bhaktas) of Lord Vishnu will reach their eternal Lord Vishnu (Krishna) in Vaikuntha and stay there together with Him eternally in the state of moksha (liberation), similarly devotees (bhaktas) of Lord Shiva will also reach their Lord Shiva on his own planet called Sadashivaloka in the world that is above this material world and thus above Satyaloka, and they will stay there eternally in the state of moksha (liberation). Thus there is no loss of individuality of jivatma. This Sadashivaloka planet is also eternal like Vaikuntha or Goloka, and it is also a place of eternal moksha (liberation). Gaudiya Vaishnavas believe that also.
But what is important to understand here is that this Lord Shiva who is sometimes called Sadashiva is not the same as Shiva who is one of the 3 main gods in this material universe (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva), but is other god Shiva and is eternal Lord who is living eternally on Sadashivaloka which is one of the planets in Vaikuntha. Thus there are two different gods called Shiva or Rudra. One is living here in this material universe, and the other is there in Vaikuntha on his own eternal planet Sadashivaloka. If you reach Lord Shiva living here in this material universe you will not be liberated from samsara. You'll be liberated in moksha only if you reach Lord Shiva (Sadashiva) living there on Sadashivaloka in Vaikuntha.

However, there could be some Shaiva traditions who believe philosophical concepts similar to Advaita Vedanta system. They believe that they will become completely one with Shiva and that they will lose individual existence as jivatma, and that "Shiva" is not a person or God, but is some impersonal entity without any personal features, similarly like Advaitins believe. There could be other beliefs also.

The concept of Shakti is not quite related to all this. But it can be said that Shakti is power or energy of God who appears as a personal female entity (goddess) in the form of His consort, and she is His servant and eternal devotee. Thus Lord Vishnu's shakti is goddess Lakshmi, ie Lord Vishnu's eternal consort. And Lord Sadashiva's shakti is goddess Durga who is his eternal consort.

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    @shisha I have updated my answer, see above under "Update". – brahma jijnasa Jul 21 '16 at 22:32
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    Very nicely phrased. I didn't know that Gaudiya Vaishnavas accept Sadashiva. Regarding Shakti, the Shaktas believe that the Supreme Mother Lalita resides within Manidvipa, which like Vaikuntha is above the material world. – Surya Jul 22 '16 at 15:32
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    @Surya Yeah, we do believe in Lord Sadashiva who is eternal God, eternal form of Lord Shiva in Vaikuntha, and He is not a jiva soul like our Lord Shiva who is living in this material Universe. Well, it seems that mother Lalita corresponds to the goddess Durga of the Lord Sadashiva living at eternal Sadashivaloka, an abode of mukti (liberation from samsara) there in Vaikuntha. – brahma jijnasa Jul 23 '16 at 13:38
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    @brahmajijnasa Lalitambika is both Durga and not Durga if you get me. That is she is the Primal Goddess of whom Durga is a manifestation. But she and Durga are mostly identical. So for Shaivas she resides in Sadashivaloka, whereas for Shaktas she resides in Manidvipa. – Surya Jul 23 '16 at 13:58
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    @Surya This conversation has been moved to chat. – Keshav Srinivasan Jul 23 '16 at 15:10
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Brahma Loka is highest in material creation. Above this situated Devi Loka where Maa Durga will reside as vayu purana confirms. Above Devi Loka is Maheshdham where Mahadev with Parvati, Ganesh and Murugan in the Loka. All of them are eternal. Above this is Karana Ocean where Karanavavasayi Vishnu resides. He manifests uncountable universes. Above that is Vaikuntha where Lord Narayana resides with Devi Lakshmi. Above this is Goloka where Adi Purusha, Govinda resides with 3 Sakti and Radhe as His consort. Above this is Mani Dvipa where Buvaneswari and Buvaneswara resides. Entire existence is underneath it. Above this is Brahman. Before existence, there were a Loka created before Mani Dvipa, that is Sadasivaloka. Brahman manifests Himself into Lord Sadasiva. He is God Almighty of Hinduism. Kurma purana explains vibhuti yoga of Siva as He says"That is my greatest abode, The Brahman,". So, Lord Sadasiva resides there with His Consort Adi Sakti. Buvaneswari in Mani Dvipa is one sixteen thousandth of Adi Sakti. She is another manifestation of Her. She builds Mani Dvipa in her own will. Goloka was created by Lord Mahadev in Maheshdham "please refer Shiva purana rudrasamhita section 2 Narration of Sati chapter 25 for proof J.L.Shastri Part 1". Now u know the Supreme Lord is Lord Sadasiva. I'm advaitic. I'm not shaivism but advaitic.

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