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Sandhyavandanam is a Nitya karma of every Dvija(twice born). It is performed when the sun and the stars are together visible which means early morning and late evening when the sun is on the horizon.

My doubt is, if by any chance a person misses this sandhya period can he perform his Nitya karma even after the sunrise and sunset.

  • Obviously you can perform SandhyaVandana after the prescribed time, by doing prayaschitta arghya, and if you belong to Yajurveda then you have to chant 108 KamoKarshit japa(not necessary for other 3 veda followers). – Yogi Sep 14 '16 at 8:48
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Sri Chandrasekhara Paramacharya of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham says in Hindu Dharma The Universal Way of Life says

Daytime, we have seen, is divided into eight parts. But it can also be divided into five, each of six nadikas. If the sun rises at 6, 6 to 8. 24 is morning or "pratah-kala"; 8. 24 to 10. 48 is "sangava-kala"; and 10. 48 to 1. 12 is "madhyahnika". From 1. 12 to 3. 36 it is "aparahna"; and from 3. 36 to 6 (or sunset) is "sayam-kala". (The time close to sunset is "pradosa". "Dosa" means night, the prefix "pra" meaning "pre" or "before". The English "pre' is derived from "pra". Pradosa thus is the time before night).

But if you miss these periods, one should perform giving prayaschitta arghya but one should not perform after night 9 pm, but do it mentally.

  • which means that performing sandhyavandanam within in 8:24am require no prayaschitta arghya – Ganesh Jul 28 '16 at 5:37
  • Yes, but the time perfectly suitable is before 7am. Usually after 7 am , people offer prayaschitta arghya. But that dopesn't mean that one can get up at 8 am and hurriedly give arghyam. It is only the limit. – Student Jul 28 '16 at 5:40
  • what do you mean by "It is only the limit." – Ganesh Jul 28 '16 at 5:53
  • It is the limit for Pratah Kalam, I mean but not for taking advantage of – Student Jul 28 '16 at 5:56
  • What is the ideal time for madhyanikam? – user9554 Oct 9 '17 at 13:48
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Sri Chandrasekhara Paramacharya of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham said once that the proper time to do sandhyavandanam is hinted in the tamil saying " Kaanaamal konaamal kandu kodu". There is one important step in Sandhyavandhanam named Argya Pradhaanam (means giving Argyam to Sun God).

As per this Tamil saying this Argya Pradhaanam is to be given along with morning Sandhyavandanam before seeing the sun (i.e. Kaanaamal) (i.e. to be performed before sunrise). So Start morning Sandhyavandanam 20 minutes before Sunrise.

The Noon Sandhyavandanam is to be when the sun is at 90 degrees (i.e. perpendicular without slanting in east side or west side but in centre up. This is called Konaamal). If the sun rises at 06:20 AM and sun sets at 06:50 PM then the Noon will be at 12:35 PM. So, start 5 minutes before Noon say at 12:30 PM.For example , if sun rises at 06:00 am and sets exactly at 06:00 PM then the Noon will be at 12:00 Noon. So, start 5 minutes before Noon say at 11:55 AM.

The evening Sandhyavandanam is to be when the sun is about to set but before it completely sets down the horizon. Kandu means that we should be able to see the sun above the horizon while doing Evening Sandhyavandanam after which the sun set would happen. If the sun set time for the day is say 06:20 PM, it is appropriate to start the evening Sandhyavandanam around 06:00 PM and complete it before the sun set.

These are all for the strict time followers in idealistic situations. Doing Sandhyavandanam without skipping is more important than adhering to the timings. So, for any reason, there happens to be slipping of the time, though one is conscious of the set scheduled timings, then also, the Sandhyavandanam has to be performed even late after giving one additional argya pradhanam for the late performing. Thus, it is emphasized by Mahaa Periyavaaa that doing three times Sandhyavandanam is more important. Anna Subramaniam of Sri RamaKrishna Math used to say that "Saappiduvadhai marandhaalum Sandhyaavandanam seivadhai marakkak koodaathu" (meaning that even we can afford to skip meals but we can not afford to skip performing Sandhya Vandanam)

In the ordinary circumstances of performing Sandhyavandanam in the aforesaid time slots punctually, We give three times argya pradhanam in morning Sandhya Vandanam. We give two times argya pradhanam in Maadhyaanika (Noon) Sandhya Vandanam. Again, it is three times argya pradhanam in evening Sandhya Vandanam. Whenever we perform late ( in delayed timings due to circumstantial reasons), then it will be for four times if it is morning, three times if it is noon and four times if it is evening.

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Three sandhya vandanams to be performed everyday. Pratha sandhya vandham It should be performed during sun rise. If you do after this prayaschita argyam to be done [usually it can be done from one hour of sunrise].Example if sun rise is 6:15 am then the prayaschita should be completed within 7:15 am.

Madyaniham--It should be done by afternoon 12 pm. But nowadays ìn office we cannot do. Hence Kanchi Paramaacharya said that it can be done by 8/45 am.

Sayam Sandhya vandanam--At sunset it has to be done. After returning from office till 9pm you can perform this by doing prayaschitham argyam. Nowadays due to traffic jam and all you can do till 9/30 pm the prayaschitham as elders say that it should not be missed.

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