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It is mentioned, in the Ramayana, that Maharishi Agastya gave the "all powerful and eternal" Adithya Hridhyam Strotra to Sri Rama, immediately before his final encounter with Ravana.

राम राम महाबाहो शृणु गुह्यं सनातनम् |

येन सर्वानरीन्वत्स समरे विजयिष्यसे ||

O Rama, the mighty-armed one! Hear the following eternal secret, by which you can conquer all the enemies in battle, my child!

What is the Adithya Hridhyam Strotra ? During what times of the day, can it be chanted? What is the procedure, for chanting the Strotra?

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Rama has chanted this continuously for 9 times before encountering Ravana and attained success.

Aditya = the Sun God; Hridayam = that which is especially nourishing and healing for the heart.

It should be chanted in the day time. Morning after sunrise by facing the sun God. Do not chant after 12/30 pm. On sundays after chanting this sloka offer curd as naivedya to Sun God.

Sankalpa should be done and start the Aditya Hrudya Stotra -- pronounce each akshara clearly.

www.harekrsna.de/aditya-hridayam.htm

Sage Agasthya Muni gave this powerful Mantra to Sri Rama when Rama was perplexed, while fighting with Ravana. After chanting this Hymn nine times Sri Rama defeated Ravana.

The Aditya Hridayam, is a hymn in glorification of the Sun or Surya and was recited by the great sage Agastya to Lord Rama on the battlefield before fighting with Ravana. This historic hymn starts at the beginning of the Battle with Ravana, when Lord Rama is fatigued and getting ready to fight. The mystical hymn is directed to the Sun God, the illustrious lord of all victories.

Surya - the Sun God

Trying to do justice to verses from the epic Ramayana – the first of all epics in the world – written over 5000 years ago, is impossible by anybody today. And for that matter, Sage Valmiki himself says that the prayer part is older than the epic itself. That must be obviously true, for, Sanskrit language existed in its poetic, prosaic and pristine form much before the penning of the epic. I have just attempted to give the limited version of my understanding of the Slokas (verses). Mistakes, if any, are all mine, and any praise for the work goes to blessings of Lord Ganesha, Lord Rama, the Sun God, and of course Sage Valmiki.

The Adityta-Hridyam Stotra is part of the Yuddha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana (the chapter of war) and contains 31 slokas.

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Aditya Hridayam (अदित्यहृदयं स्तोत्र) is part of shree Valmiki Ramayana ,Yuddha Kanda - Book Of War , Chapter [Sarga] 105 and contains 31 slokas.

1) What is the Adithya Hridhyam Strotra ? 

The Aditya Hridayam, is a hymn in glorification of the Sun or Surya . Rushi Agastya advises Shree Rama to recites the 'Aditya Hridayam', in praise of the sun-god, with a view to gaining victory in the battlefield before fighting with Ravana. This hymn starts at the beginning of the Battle with Ravana, when Lord Rama is fatigued and getting ready to fight. This hymn is dircted to the Sun God, the illustrious lord of all victories.

2) During what times of the day, can it be chanted? What is the procedure?

It's a very old hymm , Sage Valmiki himself says that the prayer part is older than the epic. See Here . Sage Valmiki haven't described exact timing or the procedure in the Ramayana as this was recited to Shree Rama in the context of gaining victory. But from our common understanding of about mantras , and the day assigned to perticular deity ,We can say that Sunday or (Ravivar ,रविवार) is a day of Aditya or Surya ,Sun. The procedure of worshiping of sun god and chanting of various mantras dedicated to him is called Suryopasana .Generally we perform Suryopasana in early morning facing the sun.So we can chant Adithya Hridhyam stotra as inclusion in suryopasana procedure. Prefarably facing the sun god and also spicially on Sundays as this is the day dedicated Sun god Or Lord Surya.

Listen to Aditya Hridayam on You Tube

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