My questions are:
1) What is "Trisuparna Suktam" (त्रिसूपर्ण सूक्त) from Vedas?
2) What are the benifits of chanting of this sukta?
3) Are there variants of this sukta according to different Shakhas (branches of Vedas)?.
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Chapter 3 of the Manu Smriti says this:
Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas.
A Trinakiketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisuparna, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Gyeshthasaman,
One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a thousand (cows), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company.
A Trisuparna is one who knows the Trisuparna Sukta. According to page 110 of this book, some commentators on the Manu Smriti say that the Trisuparna Sukta refers to verses 3-5 of Rig Veda Book 10 Hymn 114:
- The Youthful One, well-shaped, with four locks braided, brightened with oil, puts on the ordinances. Two Birds of mighty power are seated near her, there where the Deities receive their portion.
- One of these Birds hath passed into the sea of air: thence he looks round and views this universal world. With simple heart I have beheld him from anear: his Mother kisses him and he returns her kiss.
- Him with fair wings though only One in nature, wise singers shape, with songs, in many figures. While they at sacrifices fix the metres, they measure out twelve chalices of Soma.
Other commentators say that the Trisuparna Sukta refers to sections 38-40 of Taittiriya Aranyaka chapter 10, i.e. of the Mahanarayana Upanishad of the Krishna Yajur Veda:
XXXVIII-1: May the Supreme reach me. May the Blissful reach me. May the Supreme alone that is blissful reach me. O Lord, being one among Thy creatures I am Thy child. Suppress the dreary dream of the empirical existence that I experience. For that I offer myself as an oblation into Thee. O Lord, and the vital and mental powers. Thou hast kept in me
XXXVIII-2: One may impart Trisuparna to a Brahmana unsolicited. Those brahmanas who recite Trisuparna indeed destroy even the sin of brahminicide. They attain to the fruit of the performance of Soma sacrifice. They purify all those who sit in a row of a thousand (while at dinner) and attain union with Pranava, i.e., the Deity of this mantra.
XXXIX-1: That Brahman is attained through the power of intelligence. That Bliss is attained through the power of intelligence. The Bliss which is indeed Brahman is attained through the power of intelligence.
XXXIX-2: O God, O Thou Creator, vouchsafe to us today the prosperity consisting of progeny. Turn away from us this bad dream (of the world). XXXIX-3: O God, O Creator, turn away from me all the sins. Bring to me that which is beneficial.
XXXIX-4: To me, who is the devotee of the Supreme Truth let the wind blow sweetly. Let the rivers run sweetly. Let the herbs be to us sweet and beneficial.
XXXIX-5: Let there be sweetness day and night. Let the particles of the earth be sweetness bearing. Let heaven, our father, be sweet to us.
XXXIX-6: Let the fruit-bearing trees be sweet to us. Let the sun be sweet and beneficial to us. Let the cows be sweetness-bearing to us.
XXXIX-7: One may impart Trisuparna to a Brahmana unsolicited. Those brahmanas who recite Trisuparna indeed destroy even the sin of feticide or hurting a Brahmana well versed in the Vedas and in their auxiliaries. They attain to the fruit of the performance of Soma sacrifice. They purify all those who sit in a row of a thousand (while at dinner) and attain union with Pranava, i.e., the Deity of this mantra.
XXXX-1: That Brahman is attained through the power of sacrifice. That Bliss is attained through the power of sacrifice. The Bliss which is indeed Brahman is attained through the power of sacrifice.
XXXX-2: The Supreme having become the four-faced Brahma among gods, the master of right words among the composers, the seer among the intelligent people, the buffalo among animals, the kite among the birds, the cutting axe among the destructive tools and soma among the sacrificers, transcends all purifying agencies accompanied by the sound (of holy chant).
XXXX-3: That which is the sun who abides in the clear sky, is the Vasu (the air that moves) in the mid-region, is the fire that dwells in the sacrificial altar and in the domestic hearth as the guest, is the fire that shines in men and in the gods, as the Soul, is the fire that is consecrated in the sacrifice, is dwelling in the sky as air, is born in water as submarine heat, is born in the rays of the sun, is the fire that is directly seen as the luminary, and is born on the mountain as the rising sun – that is the Supreme Truth, the Reality underlying all.
XXXX-4: I pile fuel in the consecrated fire with a view to acquire the Vedas necessary for Thy worship, meditating on Thee in the form of Rig-Veda. The unbroken currents of clarified butter offered into the kindled fire – rendered sacred by cordial and hearty thoughts – flow like rivers, the water of which is potable for Gods. By this I kindly the splendour of the holy fire. XXXX-5: In that Ahavaniya Fire, amidst those currents of clarified butter offered as oblation, abides the profusely rich and splendid Supreme Being who is magnified in the Trisuparna, who dwells in the nest of the bodies of created beings, who confers bliss on creatures according to their merit, and who shares with gods sweet ambrosia in the form of oblations offered by worshippers in Fire. In His proximity are seated the seven sages who destroy sins by mere remembrance and who continuously pour oblations in the form of a current of nectar keeping in mind the various gods for whom they are meant.
XL-6: This Trisuparna may be imparted to a Brahmana unsolicited. Those brahmanas who recite Trisuparna indeed destroy even the sin of slaying a worthy Brahmana or an anointed king. They attain to the fruit of the performance of Soma sacrifice. They purify all those who sit in a row of a thousand (while at dinner) and attain union with Pranava, i.e., the Deity of this mantra.
Some benefits are spelled out in that Manu Smriti quote: a Brahmana who knows the Trisuparna Sukta sanctifies a group of people if he is fed at Shraddha. Other Dharma Shastras say the same thing; see e.g. this chapter of the Apastamba Dharma Sutras and this chapter of the Vishnu Smriti. Other benefits are spelled out in the Mahanarayana Upanishad, namely the cleansing of sins, and this is confirmed in this chapter of the Vasishta Dharma Sutras
Here is my partial answer(regarding the the benefits of reciting these mantras & their sources) .I have taken the screenshots from a book called Sukta Sangraha.In this book these mantras are called Trisuparna Mantrani.
As per this book the mantras are from Rig Veda 5:82, Rig Veda 1.90.6 & Taittiriya Samhita 220.127.116.11.
Those who recite these mantras get the fruits of soma sacrifice.Reciting the mantras will also destroy the sins of brahmicide ,foeticide & killing a protector(hero).