I know very little about the navagrahas we see in our temples. To my understanding sukra is sukracharya and guru is Brahaspathi. Does other grahas have respective gods or rishis associated with them as well ?? Can someone provide a source or a link may be to know our navagrahas ???
Focusing on the following question here:
To my understanding sukra is sukracharya and guru is Brahaspathi. Does other grahas have respective gods or rishis associated with them as well ?? Can someone provide a source or a link may be to know our navagrahas ???
Yes,you are right about Sukra and Brihaspati.Now please refer to the "Features of Nava Grahas and Procedure of Navagraha Shanti" Chapter of the Matsya Purana,to know about the features,descriptions of the Navagrahas and also their respective Adhi(Ruling/Presiding Deity) and Pratyadhi Devatas.
First, the following verse describes which are the 9 planetary deities:
Adithyaya Somaaya Mangalaaya Budhaayacha Guru Shukra Sanirbhyascha Rahavey Ketavey Namah/
So,Surya, Chandra, Mangala, Budha, Brihaspati, Shukra, Shani, Rahu and Ketu are the Navagrahas.
Now,their descriptions and features are as follows:
1 Surya-Padmaasanah Padmakarah Padmagarbha samuddhitah, Saptaashvah Saptarujjuscha Dwibhujah syaat sadaa Ravih/
(Surya Deva has two hands wearing two lotuses, seated on a lotus flower; his luster is abundant like that of the outside part of a lotus; Surya Deva is comfortably seated on a magnificent chariot driven by Seven Horses).
2 Chandra-Swetah Swetaambaradharah Swetaashvah Swetavaahanah Gadaapaanirdwibaahus cha Kartavyo varadah Shashee
(Chandra Deva is of white colour, wears white clothes, has white horses, white chariot, with �gada�/ mace and �Varada Mudra� or sign of Protection).
3 Mangala(or Kuja)-Raktamaalyaambara dharah Shakti Shula Gadadharah, Chaturbhujah Raktaromaa varadah syad Dharaasutah/
(Dhrarani nandana or the son of Earth, Mangala is adorned with Shakti, Trishula, Gada and Vara Mudra on his four hands; his body colour is blood red, wears red clothes and red flower garland)
4 Budha-Peetamaalyaambara dharah Karnikaa �rasamadyutih, Khadgacharma gadaa paanih Simhastho varado Budhah/
(Budha Deva wears yellow flower garland and yellow clothes with body colour too yellowish; he sports a sword, shield, mace and �Vara mudra� by his four hands and is seated on a lion);
5 & 6-Brihaspati and Sukra-Deva daitya Guru Taddhat peetaswaitow chaturbhujaow, Dandinow Varadow Kaaryao Saakshasutra Kamandalu/
(The �Pratimas� or Idols of Deva Guru Brihaspati and of Danava Guru Shukraachaarya should respectively be of yellow and white colours; their hands are ornamented with Danda, Rudrakshamaala, Kamandalu and Varada Mudra).
7-Shani-Indra neela dutih Shuli varado Grudhra vaahanah Baana baanaasanadharah kartavy -orka suthastathaa/
(Shanaischara�s body colour is of �Indraneelamani� / blue diamond; he rides a �Grudhra� / Vulture and carries bow and arrows, Trishula and Varada Mudra).
8 Rahu-Karaala vadanah Khadgacharma Shuli Varapradah, Neela simhaasanascha Rahuratra Prashasyatey/
( Rahu Deva is fierce looking, carries sword, skin sheath, Shula and Vara Prada by his four hands and is seated on a blue throne).
9 Ketu-Dhumraa Dwibaahavah Sarvey Gadino vikrutaananah, Grudhraasana gataa nithyam Ketavah Syurvara pradaah/
(Ketu Deva is of grey colour and of fierce Rupa with two hands showing gadaa and varada mudra seated always on a vulture)
Does other grahas have respective gods or rishis associated with them as well ??
Yes, they have ruling and over-ruling Deities associated with each of them.They are called the Adhi and Pratyadhi Devatas.
In the Navagraha Suktam each of the Grahas are saluted along with their ruling/presiding Deities typically as "om adhi devataa pratyadhi devataa sahitaaya aadity aaya nama:"
And,the Adhi and Pratyadhi Devatas for each of the Navagraha Deities are as follows(taken from the same Matsya Purana page linked above):
The Adhi Devatas to each of the Planets are as follows: Shiva for Surya, Parvati for Chandra, Skanda for Mangal, Vishnu for Budha, Brahma for Brihaspati, Indra for Shukra, Yama for Shanaischara, Kaala Devata forRahu and Chitragupta for Ketu. The Pratyabhidevatas respectively are Agni, Varuna, Prithvi, Vishnu, Indra, Aindri, Prajapati, Sarpa and Brahma.
Further descriptions and significance of Navagrahas are found in Jyotisha texts like the Brihat Parashara Hora.Few of them are given below:
10. Names of Grahas. The names of the nine Grahas, respectively, are Surya, Candr, Mangal, Budh, Guru, Sukr, Sani, Rahu and Ketu. 11. Benefics and Malefics. Among these, Surya, Sani, Mangal, decreasing Candr, Rahu and Ketu (the ascending and the descending nodes of Candr) are malefics, while the rest are benefics. Budh, however, is a malefic, if he joins a malefic. Addition from Santhanam till Sloka 12-13. When Candr is ahead of Surya, but within 120, she has medium strength....Surya is the soul of all. Candr is the mind. Mangal is one’s strength. Budh is speech-giver, while Guru confers Knowledge and happiness. Sukr governs semen (potency), while Sani denotes grief. 14- 15. Grah cabinet. Of royal status are Surya and Candr, while Mangal is the Army chief. Prince-apparent is Budh. The ministerial Grahas are Guru and Sukr. Sani is a servant. Rahu and Ketu form the Grah Army. 16-17. Complexions of Grahas. Surya is blood-red. Candr is tawny. Mangal, who is not very tall is blood-red, while Budh’s hue is akin to that of green grass. Tawny, variegated and dark are Guru, Sukr and Sani in their order. 18. Deities of Grahas. Fire (Agni) (?), Water (Varuna), Subrahmanya (Lord Shiva’s son, following Ganesh), Maha Vishnu, Indra, Shachi Devi (the consort of Lord Indra) and Brahma (?) are the presiding deities of the 7 Grahas in their order. 19. Gender of the Grahas. Budh and Sani are neuters. Candr and Sukr are females, while Surya, Mangal and Guru are males. 20. Primordial compounds. The Panchabhutas, space, air, fire, water and earth, are, respectively, governed by Guru, Sani, Mangal, Sukr and Budh. 21. Castes of Grahas. Guru and Sukr are Brahmins. Surya is a royal Grah, while Candr and Budh belong to commercial community. Sani rules the Sudras (4th caste). 22. Sattvic Grahas are the luminaries and Guru, Sukr and Budh are Rajasik, while Mangal and Sani are Tamasic.
Note-I have not dealt with the question in the title.Origin of each of the Navagrahas are given in several Puranas.So,if i were to include all of those datas will make this answer rather long.Anyways, i have answered the questions that are in the question's body,waiting to hear from you whether you are satisfied with the answer or not.