2

In the sloka 6 of Chapter 15 Bhagavadgita: Lord Krishna gives a hint of the physical appearance of his loka where he says

"na tad bhasayate suryo na sasanko na pavakah yad gatva na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama"

It means

"The Supreme abode of mine is not illumined by the sun or moon, nor by fire. One who reaches it never returns to this material world."

By this sloka Lord Krishna implies that which is eternal or indestructible is independent upon the material constituents, for humans it is impossible to think of a world that is not lit by sun, moon, fire or electricity.

By giving a description Lord raised the eyebrows of human conscious to think of what is beyond material worlds.

It is of much relevance as the supreme lord himself speaks of it.

  1. What is the dhama that Lord Krishna refers to in this sloka is it Vaikuntha, Goloka or any other world? Give documentary evidence in support of your answer

  2. If not by sun, moon or fire then what illuminates the param dhama ?

1
  • Let me know what clarification you're looking for so-that I can add it to the answer. Thanks – Pandya Dec 2 '18 at 15:59
3

Parama Dhama is mentioned in Bhagavad Gita verse 8.21 which I recommend to refer first:

अव्यक्तोऽक्षर इत्युक्तस्तमाहुः परमां गतिम्
यं प्राप्य न निवर्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम।।8.21।।

He who has been mentioned as the Unmanifested, the Immutable, they call Him the supreme Goal. That is the supreme abode of Mine, reaching which they do not return.

In Vedanta (spiritual) philosophy, Parama Dhama would be interpreted as either Brahman or BrahmaLoka. (Ref. Brahma Sutra 3.3.26 to 3.3.32) Also visit Where does a Soul attach to the Body?

Brahman is referred as Paramatma means the Supreme Self that dwells within all beings and Parama Dhama refers to it.

Q. If not by sun, moon or fire then what illuminates the param dhama ?

Actually sun, moons are illuminated by the supreme self so they can't illuminate Brahman.

Bhagavad Gita is considered as Smriti Prashthana for Vedanta. Bhagavad Gita is considered as extract of Upanishads also.

The verse you've mentioned (BG 15.6) looks very similar to that of Upanishads:

न तत्र सूर्यो भाति न चन्द्रतारकं नेमा विद्युतो भान्ति कुतोऽयमग्निः ।
तमेव भान्तमनुभाति सर्वं तस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति ॥

The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings, not to speak of this fire. When He shines, everything shines after Him; by His light everything is lighted.

Which is from Kathopanishad 2.2.15, Maundakopanishad 2.2.10 & ShvetaSvataropanishad 6.14

Also read the interpretation of BG verse 15.6 by Sri Ramanujacharya:

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Adidevananda

15.6 The sun cannot illumine the light of the self, nor moon, nor fire. For, knowledge is indeed that which illumines them all. External lights, however, are helpful only in removing the darkness which hinders the contact between the senses and the objects. It is the intelligence of the self that reveals such external lights. What reveals this (i.e., the self) is Yoga (i.e., meditation) only. Beginningless Karma is the hindrance. It has been taught that the way for the erasing of Karma is self-surrender to the Lord through detachment etc. That supreme light, reaching which they do not return any more is the self, which is My glory (Vibhuti) and therefore belongs to Me and is a part of Myself. Such is the meaning. The supremacy of this light (i.e., individual self) consists in its capacity to illumine the light of knowledge. Knowledge alone can illuminate all things (including the light of the sun which sheds only physical light on objects.).

For Brahma Loka or Surya Loka visit : Surya Loka(सूर्य लोकं) in Hinduism and/or Want to know about Brahmaloka

Note that Adobe of Krisna is also known as Goloka in some scriptures like Garga Samhita and Adobe of Vishnu is also known as Vaikuntha

2

Here's what different commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita say. Adi Shankaracharya identifies it as the supreme abode of Vishnu:

Na suryah, niether the sun-though possessed of the power of illumining everything; so also, na sasankah, nor the moon; na pavakah, nor even fire; bhasayate, illumines; tat, That [-this (word) refers to the remote word dhama (Abode) at the end of the verse-], that Abode which is of the nature of light. That abode, the State of Visnu, gatva, reaching, attaining; yat, which; they na, do not; nivartante, return, and which the sun etc. do not illumine; tat, that; is mama, My, Visnu’s; paramam, supreme; dhama, Abode, State.

Prabhupada identifies it as Krishna's abode of Goloka, and says that the light that illuminates it is Brahmajyoti:

The spiritual world, the abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna—which is known as Krishnaloka, Goloka Vrindavana—is described here. In the spiritual sky there is no need of sunshine, moonshine, fire or electricity, because all the planets are self-luminous. We have only one planet in this universe, the sun, which is self-luminous, but all the planets in the spiritual sky are self-luminous. The shining effulgence of all those planets (called Vaikunthas) constitutes the shining sky known as the brahmajyoti. Actually, the effulgence is emanating from the planet of Krishna, Goloka Vrindavana. Part of that shining effulgence is covered by the mahat-tattva, the material world. Other than this, the major portion of that shining sky is full of spiritual planets, which are called Vaikunthas, chief of which is Goloka Vrindavana.

Ramanujacharya interprets the verse as referring to the Jivatma, and how it is only illuminated by knowledge:

The sun cannot illumine the light of the self, nor moon, nor fire. For, knowledge is indeed that which illumines them all. External lights, however, are helpful only in removing the darkness which hinders the contact between the senses and the objects. It is the intelligence of the self that reveals such external lights. What reveals this (i.e., the self) is Yoga (i.e., meditation) only. Beginningless Karma is the hindrance. It has been taught that the way for the erasing of Karma is self-surrender to the Lord through detachment etc. That supreme light, reaching which they do not return any more is the self, which is My glory (Vibhuti) and therefore belongs to Me and is a part of Myself. Such is the meaning. The supremacy of this light (i.e., individual self) consists in its capacity to illumine the light of knowledge. Knowledge alone can illuminate all things (including the light of the sun which sheds only physical light on objects.).

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .