From here On page 224, this is the translation
इन्द्रियेभ्य: परं मनो मनस: सत्वमुत्तमम् |
सत्त्वादधि महानात्मा महतोsव्यकतमुत्तमम् ||7||
indriyebhyaḥ param mano manasaṣ sattvam uttamam,
sattvād adhi mahān ātmā, mahato’vyaktam uttamam. (7)
Beyond the senses is the mind, higher than the mind is
the intellect, higher than the intellect is the great Atman,
higher than the mahat is avyaktam (the unmanifested).
अव्यक्तात्तु पर: पुरुषो व्यापकोsलिङ्ग एव च |
यं ज्ञात्वा मुच्यते जन्तुरमृतत्वं च गच्छति ||८||
avyaktāt tu paraḥ puruso vyāpako’liṅga eva ca,
yaṁ jñātvā mucyate jantur amṛtatvaṁ ca gacchati. (8)
Beyond the avyakta is Purusha, all-pervading and
devoid of linga (indicative sign). He who knows Him is
liberated and obtains Immortality. (II.3.8)
And on page 162, this is commentary.
Why do you go to the senses as if they were everything?
“The mind is superior to, and controls the, senses. The
intelligence controls the mind; superior to the intellect is
the mahat-tattva beyond which is mulaprakriti, of which
hiranyagarbha is the manifestation. Beyond everything is
the purusha.” Why don’t you go to the Supreme Being?
Why to the senses which are the lowest manifestation? This
purusha is all-pervading, and nothing is greater than He.
Unfortunately for us, we cannot define this purusha.
The mind and the senses can be defined; hiranyagarbha
and virat can be symbolically explained, but not the
purusha. We cannot define anything without reference to
its qualities and attributes, but He is devoid of these, and
He is therefore undefinable. “He is alinga—but if you have
the blessedness to realise Him by some means or other,
titiksha is attained.” The purusha without any mark cannot
be meditated upon. So different Upanishads give us
definitions and qualities of Him to be meditated on, like
satyam, jnanam, anantam, vijnanam, tat tvam asi, etad vai
tat, etc. These are symbols; not definitions of God. There
are various symbols, including the idols in temples. Any
one will do, provided it is taken as the final one. By this, the
purusha can be realised.
It seems "senses" in your translation is Samkhya tattva of panchendriyas, "mind" is samkhya tattva of manas, "essense" in your translation is samkhya tattva of buddhi/intellect. "great atman" is sankhya tattva of mahat. "Unmanifest" is sankhya tattva of mulaprakriti and "person" is purusha tattva of samkhya. http://www.hinduwebsite.com/24principles.asp
Edit: Vedanta interpretation of these verses can be more clearly seen here on pages 37 to 39
The order of gradual inversion from the external world is being discussed. We experience
the presence and power of the five sense-organs, we then reflect upon our perception of
their objects and the relevance that we give them. We then reflect upon the mind that
collates the data, we then progress to the contemplation of the intellect, to the process of
understanding the thinking process itself. Once we transcend this state of thinking about
thinking we can then perceive the Self as it is.
arthāḥ = the “things” of the senses that have no meaning in themselves but the meaning
that we give them.
Great Self = Shankara means by it the great “Self of the universe” said to be the firstborn
of the Unmanifest. According to the RX. (X.121) in the beginning was the chaos of
waters, floating on which appeared Hiranya-garbha, the golden germ, the first born of
creation and the creator of all other human beings. Hiranya-garbha is the Self of the
For Ramanuja the Great Self is the individual Self or the subject of all experience which
is indwelt by the Highest Self.
The Unmanifest. It is beyond mahat or the Self, it is prakṛti, the universal mother Nature
from out of which, by the influence of the light of purusa, all form and all content emerge
Shankara suggests that the "Unmanifest” is the latent state of the whole universewhen
name and form are unmanifested. The state when all forces of cause and effect are in a
latent condition prior to manifestation. It is the same as Māyā – Illusion and Avidya –
ignorance. Puruṣa (That which fills, or the Supreme Person) is the subject, Prakṛti or
material nature is the object, both are co-ordinate principles at the stage of cosmic
creation, while their inter-action is essential for all manifestation, Puruṣa is considered to
be higher as he is the source of light and his unit appears nearer to the Ultimate One than
the multiplicity of Prakrti; strictly speaking, however, the Pure Self is beyond the
descriptions of unity, duality and multiplicity.
For Shankara, the “Unmanifest” here is not the Prakṛti or Primordial Nature of the
Sankhya System but the māyā-śakti which is responsible for the whole world including
the personal God. For Ramanuja, Unmanifest denotes the Brahman in its causal phase,
when names and forms are not yet distinguished. It is a real mode, prakāra or
development, a real transformation of Brahman through which the universe is evolved
and comes into being.
The Puruṣa – The term Puruṣa goes back to the Puruṣa Sukta (R.V. X. 90) where it is
used in a distinctly personal way. The Ultimate Reality or Brahman contains all
possibilities of manifestation and non-manifestation of both subject and object, both the
light of unity and the darkness of multiplicity – Puruṣa is the subjective side of that
Brahman. We do not reach it, until the end of the cosmic day when the entire universe is
reabsorbed into Brahman. So from this point of view we can say that there is nothing
beyond the Puruṣa.
So as per Sankara, great-self/mahat is hiranya-garbha and unmanifest is maya and avidya.
As per Ramanuja, great-self/mahat is individual self, jivatman and unmanifest is Brahman in its casual phase.
Purusha is subjective side of Brahman.