Is there a formal study to find how Vedas treated mathematics? I am interested to know; have we understood all the mathematics in Vedas by now? Does Vedas covers has all the present topics of mathematics? Is there anything in Vedas (mathematically) that we do not understand? Is there anyone who is still trying to bridge the gap?
Although there was a great understanding of mathematics during the vedic period, they are not mentioned per se in the vedas. The Mundaka Upanishad (part of the Atharva Veda) says in I.i.4-6 (Swami Gambhirananda translator):
To him he said, "' There are two kinds of knowledge to be acquired--the higher and the lower', that is what, as tradition runs, the knowers of the import of the Vedas say."
Of these, the lowers comprises the Rg-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharva-Veda, the science of pronunciation etc., the code of rituals, grammar, etymology, metre, and astrology. Then there is the higher (knowledge) by which is realized that Immutable.
(By the higher knowledge) the wise realize everywhere that which cannot be perceived and grasped; which is without source, features, eyes, and ears, which has neither hands nor feet; which is external, multi-formed, all-pervasive, extremely subtle, and undiminishing; and which is the source of all.
So mathematics is not mentioned as one of the lower knowledges or the higher knowledge. For more information on early Indian mathematics see - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_mathematics