Short Question (or say subset of below longer question - Just to make long question easier to understand) -

  • Will Vaikuntha be ever over populated by liberated souls? If not, Lord Vishnu is not benevolent as some poor souls will never get Moksha which is cosmic injustice. If yes, how will he deal with such situation?

Note - Replace Vaikuntha with any other permanent physical place where you believe you will reside permanently after getting Moksha and Lord Vishnu with any God with whom you believe you are gonna live forever.

Long Question -

There are only three non dual schools of thoughts namely Sāntabrahmavāda (Sankara Vedanta), Ishvarādvayavāda (Kashmiri Shaivism) & Shuddhadvaita. In all these systems, liberation is assimilation of empirical self into universal self (in simple terms). Therefore, there is no empirical self or monad exists after liberation, it's identity is with universal consciousness only after liberation.

Apart from these 3 systems, all systems are either semi dual or dual. According to these systems, empirical self isn't assimilated into universal consciousness rather exists even after liberation although in purer & bliss form.

My question is from later systems of thoughts -

  1. There are infinite creations.
  2. Because there are infinite creations, every individual empirical self is destined to get liberated. If it isn't, God is not benevolent. But God is benevolent therefore every individual self surely attains liberation in some point in time however very long.
  3. Once liberated individual self won't take birth once again, otherwise what use of liberation?
  4. From 2, there would be a point of time when all individuals souls would be liberated however may be so long.
    Now after point 4 is accomplished, on what basis creation would be accomplished?,
    If answers are one among -
  5. New individual self would be created. Then on what basis? Even if we accept they are created somehow then it would imply the increasing number of individual selves, which leads to infinite number of individual selves at some point of time!!!
  6. Same individual selves will again take part in creation & will take births. If it is then what is the use of liberation? Doesn't it imply liberation according to these systems are temporary only.
  • 2
    This problem even exists in Advaitic philosophies. How Kashmir Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta escape from this predicament? btw, see What will happen when all atmans get moksha?
    – The Destroyer
    May 5 '17 at 13:03
  • Yes @TheDestroyer they escape at some extent. There is no 'you' after liberation. May 5 '17 at 13:04
  • 1
    Well, if there are an infinite number of Jivas, then even if it is true that each Jiva will attain Moksha sooner or later, their attainment of Moksha could be staggered so that there is never any point in time when all Jivas have attained Moksha. In any case, pretty much everyone (except Arya Samaj people) believes that Moksha is eternal. May 5 '17 at 15:28
  • 1
    By the way, not everyone believes that all Jivas will attain Moksha. The Dvaita philosopher Madhvacharya believed that there are some Jivas who will be stuck in the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth for all eternity. And he believed that some Jivas who do sufficiently bad deeds over the course of many births will eventually fall down into Andhatamas, a place of eternal punishment. May 5 '17 at 15:32
  • 2
    Btw, In addition to Advaita & KS, I think Shuddhadvaita (of Vallabhacharya) is also non dual philosophy.
    – Pandya
    May 6 '17 at 6:19

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