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Here is a mention of the shodahAdhAras or the sixteen adharas ( adhara means base).

ShadadvAnam ShadAdhAram ShodasAdhAranirnayam |
Yo JAnAthi VidhAnena Sa Guruh Kathitha Priye ||

[Lord Shiva says to Devi] One who knows how to determine the ShadadvA, ShadAdhAra and ShodashAdhAras accurately is called a Guru.

KulArnava Tantram 13-69.

The translator gives the following information on what is what:

ShadadvA:

Varna, Pada, Mantra, KalA, Tattva and Bhuvan- These six ways or methods (AdhvA means ways or means).

ShadadhAra:

MulAdhAra, SwAdhishthAna, Manipura, AnAhata, Visuddha and AjnA- These six chakras.

ShodhashAdhAra:

The six ShadadhAras plus the following ten- Bindu, KalA, NivodhikA, Ardhendu, NAda, NAdAnta, Unmani, Vishnuchakra and Shiva.

I want to know about the 10 adharas mentioned above, from Bindu to Shiva.

We know that the six chakras are located in our body ( muladhara near the anus to ajna at between the eyebrows.). The 7th chakra (Sahasrara) of course lies at the top of the head.

Do these 10 adharas also have a location each with respect to our body? If so which are those locations?

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Yes, Shodashaadhaara are situated in our body where a Yogi used to concentrate while meditating. This is described in Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, Chapter 2 written by Guru Gorakshanatha.

screenshot of source in devanagari script

The text now mentions 16 places where meditation may be accomplished. On the tip of the big toe of the right foot one should meditate on a steady light. The second base is situated in the root chakra, and a flaming fire should he visualised there. Thirdly is the anus, where the Apana vital breath resides. The fourth is in the penis, where the Brahmagranthis are said to come together. Fifth is the Oddiyana base (see above). Sixthly is the navel centre, in which is Om, where all sound dissolves. The seventh is the heart chakra, where Prana resides.

  The eighth is the throat adhara, the place where Ida and Pingala come together. The ninth base is the Ghantika, at the root of the tongue, whence arises the nectar. The tenth is behind this, identified with the Talu chakra. The eleventh base is at the tip of the tongue. Meditating here one conquers all disease. The twelfth centre is the third eye, where one should meditate on the lunar circle.

  Next and thirteenth is the spot at the root of the nose. Meditating here, one becomes very concentrated of mind. The fourteenth base is behind the root of the nose. The fifteenth is on the forehead, and is said to be the centre of Light. At the sixteenth, above the Brahmarandhra, is the Space Chakra, and here reside the two lotus feet of Shri Guru.

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On the commentary of a verse found in the 3rd chapter of Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the commentator also provides the following list for the 16 Adharas.

AngushthagulphojAnurusivani linga nAbhaya |
HrundrivA kanthadeshashcha lambikA nAsikA tathA ||
Bhrumadhyam cha lalAtam cha brahmarandhrakam |
Eta hi shodashAdhArAh kathithAh yogipungavai ||

The sixteen vital parts mentioned by renowned Yogîs are the (1) thumbs, (2) ankles, (3) knees, (4) thighs, (5) the prepuce, (6) organs of generation, (7) the navel, (8) the heart, (9) the neck, (10) the throat, (11) the palate, (12) the nose, (13) the middle of the eyebrows, (14) the forehead, (15) the head and (16) the Brahma randhra.

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