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Here is a similar question which asks definition of Bhagavan from Vishnu Purana:

Definition of Bhagavan as per Vishnu Purana

Here I'm asking about definition of Bhagavan as per Shiva Purana. So, what does Shiva Purana state about meaning of the word 'Bhagavan' ? Is the definition reflected in other scriptures like Vedas too?

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Shiva Purana Vidyesvara Samhita chapter 16 gives definition of what is meant by 'Bhagavan' and why is Lord Shiva called Bhagavan:

भं वृद्धिं गच्छतीत्यर्थाद्भगः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।
प्राकृतैः शब्दमात्राद्यै प्राकृतेन्द्रियभोजनात् ।।
भगस्य दं भोगमिति शब्दार्थो मुख्यतः श्रुतः ।
मुख्यो भगस्तु प्रकृतिर्भगवाञ्छिव उच्यते ।।
भगवान् भोगदाता हि नान्यो भोगप्रदायकः ।
भगस्वामी च भगवानन्भर्ग इत्युच्यते बुधैः ।।
भगेन सहितं लिंगं भगं लिंगेन संयुतम् ।
इहामुत्र च भोगार्थ नित्यभोगार्थमेव च ।। (Shiva Purana 1.16)

The word Bhaga means the Prakirti because it increases and flourishes. The Sabda matras etc. (the cosmic sound principle it: all objects of enjoyment) evolved out of Prakrti, being enjoyed by the sense organs, the word Bhaga comes to mean that which gives Bhoga. Bhaga is of course the Prakrti and Bhagavan is Lord Shiva himself. Bhagavan alone bestows the Bhoga of everything. No one else except him bestows the Bhoga. Bhagavan is indeed the lord of Bhaga, therefore he is also called Bharga. Bhaga is meant for Linga and the Linga is meant for Bhaga in this world as well as in the Paraloka. Shivalinga of Mahadeva should be adored with Bhaga.

Thus Bhagavan means the one who owns 'Bhaga' or the Lord of Bhaga is known as Bhagavan. From the above passage we find:

1) Bhagvan is the one who is Lord of Bhaga (Prakirti)

2) Bhagvan is the one provides Bhoga.

3) Lord is also called Bharga as he is Lord of Bhaga.

4) Lord is worshipped in Linga form along with Bhaga (which is Yoni/Vedi of ShivaLinga)

Regarding the above conclusion some questions may arise such as:

Is Lord Shiva associated with 'Bhaga' ?

Yes, he is associated. For eg. As described in answer here SataRudriya section of Yajurveda itself associates Lord Shiva with Bhaga:

Namaste Astu Bhagava
Tâsãmishãno Bhagava
Parãtã Bhagavo vapaha

Also the Maitryayani Samhita of Sri Rudram itself calls Lord by addressing as 'Bhagavan'. Similarly Svetasvatara Upanishad also states 'Sarvavyapi sa Bhagavan'

The definition of Shiva Purana says 'Bhaga Swami cha Bhagavan' or 'he who is Lord of Bhaga is Bhagavan.' So Is Lord Shiva called Lord of Bhaga also?

Yes, he is called in Svetasvatara Upanishad 6.6:

स वृक्षकालाकृतिभिः परोऽन्यो
              यस्मात् प्रपञ्चः परिवर्ततेऽयम् ।
धर्मावहं पापनुदं भगेशं
              ज्ञात्वात्मस्थममृतं विश्वधाम ॥ ६॥

He from whom this universe proceeds is higher and other than all forms of the Tree of the World and of time. When one knows Him who is the indweller, the bringer of good, the destroyer of evil, the Lord of Bhaga, the immortal support of all, one attains final Liberation.

The definition of Shiva Purana also says 'Bharga itiuchyate budhai' or 'That's why he is also called Bharga.' Is Lord Shiva also called Bharga?

Yes, 'Bharga' denotes Lord Shiva. Actually the word 'Bharga' in Gayatri Mantra also denotes Lord Shiva. It is stated in Maitrayani Aranyaka as:

अथ भर्ग इति यो ह वा अमुष्मिन्नादित्ये निहितस्तारकोऽक्षिणिवैष भर्गाख्यः। भाभिगंतिरस्य हीति भर्गः । भर्जयतीति वैष भर्ग इतिरुद्रो ब्रह्मवादिन । (Maitrayani Aranyaka 6.7)

Now he who is called bharga is he who is placed in yonder Aditya, or he who is the pupil in the eye. And he is so called, because his going (gati) is by rays (bhabhih); or because he parches (bhargayati) and makes the world to shrivel up. Rudra is called Bharga, thus say the knower of Brahman.

Thus Lord Shiva is called Bhagavan because he is the Lord of Bhaga (Bhagesha), Provider of Bhoga (Bhogadãtã), worshipped along with Bhaga (Bhagena Sahita Lingam) and also called as Bharga.

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