I need any verses from sruti literature that is Vedas, Upanishad, Brahmanas etc to get answer.

2 Answers 2


There are many many verses and answer would be extremely long to quote it all. I discuss how Lord Rudra is revealed in RigVeda in my answer here and my answer here also contains many Vedic quotes.

Here, I'm just trying to make connection between Samhita, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.

1) Lord Rudra as One Without Second:

One of the main characteristic of Brahman is he is defined as One without Second ie. 'EkaEvadwitiyam'. Taittariya Samhita of YajurVeda 1.8.6.d states:

एक एव रुद्र न द्वितीयाय तस्थुर्...
Eka eva rudra na dvitīyāya tasthur...

ie., Rudra is truly one for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second.

This verse is derived in Svetasvatara Upanishad 3.1 as:

एको हि रुद्रो न द्वितियाय तस्थु-र्य ईमाल्लोकानिशत ईशनीभि: |
प्रत्यङ् जनांस्तिष्ठति संकुचोचान्तकाले संयुज्य विश्वा भुवतानि गोपा: ||

Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time.

And the Atharvasiras too states:

एको ह देवः प्रदिशो नु सर्वाः पूर्वो ह जातः स उ गर्भे अन्तः । स एव जातः जनिष्यमाणः प्रत्यङ्जनास्तिष्ठति सर्वतोमुखः । एको रुद्रो न द्वितीयाय तस्मै य इमांल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः । प्रत्यङ्जनास्तिष्ठति संचुकोचान्तकाले संसृज्य विश्वा भुवनानि गोप्ता ।

This god is the one who pervades in all directions. He is the one who came earlier than every thing. He is the one who is in the womb. He is the one who is in all the creatures which have come out till now and all those who are going to be created in future. He is also the one who sees the inside but the one who has a face which looks outside. Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them.

2) Lord Rudra as innate of Everything:

Another Characteristic of Brahman is he is described as Antaryami or Innate of everything. Brahman has created and entered the whole Universe.

YajurVeda Taittariya Samhita 5.5.9i states:

यो रुद्रो अग्नौ यो अप्सु य ओषधिषु । यो रुद्रो विश्वा भुवना विवेश तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्तु ।। (YajurVeda 5.5.9)

The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra that hath entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage.

This verse has been derived in Svetasvatara Upanishad 2.17 as:

यो देवो अग्नौ योऽप्सु
        यो विश्वं भुवनमाविवेश ।
य ओषधीषु यो वनस्पतिषु
        तस्मै देवाय नमो नमः ॥ १७॥

The Self—luminous Lord, who is in fire, who is in water, who has entered into the whole world, who is in plants, who is in trees— to that Lord let there be adoration! Yea, let there be adoration!

Similarly as I discuss here Atharvaveda Samhita 7.87 states:

योऽग्नौ रुद्रो योऽप्स्वन्तर्य ओषधीर्वीरुध आविवेश ।
य इमाविश्वा भुवनानि चक्लृपे तस्मै रुद्राय नमोऽस्त्वग्नये ।।

To Rudra in the fire, to him who dwells in floods, to Rudra who hath entered into herbs and plants, To him who formed and fashioned all these worlds, to him this Rudra, yea, to Agni, reverence be paid!

And same verse has been quoted by Atharvasiras Upanishad in 6.1.

3) Lord Rudra as Everything That Exists:

Brahman is also defined as 'Sarva Khalvidam Brahman' or 'Whole Universe is Brahman.' Thus Brahman is every manifestation of Universe.

Lord Rudra as Everything that exists is clearly shown by the hymn from YajurVeda Samhita ie. Sri Rudram, some verses which I also discuss in my answer here. Some verses from Sri Rudram are as:

नमो अस्तु नीलग्रीवाय सहस्राक्षाय.... नमः पाँसव्याय च रजस्याय च । नमः पर्ण्याय च पर्णशद्याय च ....  रथेभ्यो रथपतिभ्यो नमो नम.... नमः सुतायहन्ताय, रथकारेम्यो नमो नमः । .... नमो अश्वेभ्योश्वपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।.... नमः स्वपद्भ्यो जाग्रद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।... नमस्तिष्ठद्भ्यो धावद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।.... नमो विरूपेभ्यो विश्वरूपेभ्यश्च वो नमः .... नमो ज्येष्ठाय च कनिष्ठाय च । ... नमः श्रवाय च प्रतिश्रवाय च ।... नमो मेघ्याय च विद्युत्याय च ।.... नमस्ताराय ।.... देवानाँ हृदयेभ्यः नमो ।...  (YajurVeda Samhita 16th Chapter)

Salutations to the 1000 eyed (all seeing) blue necked one. Salutations to him who is in speck of dust and who is in the dust from mud. Salutations to him who is in green leaves and who is in dried leaves. Salutation to him who is chariot, who is rider of chariot, who is charioteer and who is maker of Chariot. Salutations to him who is horse and rider of horse. Salutations to him who is in the form of Swapna (dream) state and Jagrat (awake) state. Salutations to him who stands and who runs. Salutations to him who is formless and whose form is the whole Universe. Salutations to him who is eldest and who is youngest. Salutations to him who is in the form of Sound and in the reflection/ Echo of the sound. Salutations to him who is in the form of clouds and lightning. Salutations to him who is in the form of Pranava. Salutations to him who is in the heart of Gods...

Similarly as I discuss here Taittariya Aranyaka of YajurVeda states:

सर्वो वै रुद्रस्तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्तु । पुरुषो वै रुद्रः
सन्महो नमो नमः । विश्वं भूतं भुवनं चित्रं बहुधा जातं जायमानं चयत् । सर्वो ह्येष रुद्रस्तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्तु ॥ कद्रुद्राय प्रचेतसे मीढुष्टमाय तव्यसे । वोचेम शंतम हृदे । सर्वोह्येष रुद्रस्तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्तु ॥ (Krishna YajurVeda Taittariya Aranyaka 10.24.1, 10.25.1)

All this verily is Rudra. To Rudra who is such we offer our salutation. We salute again and again that Being, Rudra, who is Purusha. The material universe the created beings and whatever there is manifoldly and profusely created in the past and in the present in the form of the world, all that is indeed this Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such. We sing a hymn that confers on us happiness in the highest degree to Rudra who is worthy of praise, who is endowed with the highest knowledge, who rains objects to the worshippers most excellently, who is more powerful and who is dwelling in the heart. Indeed all this is Rudra. Salutations be to Rudra who is such.

Similarly this chapter of Shatapatha Brahmana of YajurVeda also states similar things:

....for Rudra is Agni....for Sarva is the waters.... for Pasupati is the plants...for Ugra is Vâyu.... for Asani is the lightning... for Bhava is Parjanya... for the moon is Pragâpati, and Pragâpati is Mahadeva.... for Ishana is the Sun...

Thus the forms like Sun, Moon, Prajapati, Fire, Air, Plants, Water etc.. are all forms of Lord Shiva. A group of these Eight are also called AshtaMurti. Similarly 6.4 of Kaushitki Brahmana of RigVeda also illustrates similar thing. Same thing has been stated by Svetasvatara Upanishad in a Single verse as:

          स्तद्वायुस्तदु चन्द्रमाः ।
तदेव शुक्रं तद् ब्रह्म
          तदापस्तत् प्रजापतिः ॥ २॥
That Supreme Self is Agni (Fire); It is Aditya (Sun); It is Vayu (Wind); It is Chandrama (Moon). That Self is the luminous stars; It is Hiranyagarbha; It is water; It is Virat.

4) Lord Pashupati is Lord of all Pashus:

I discuss Vedic verses about Lord Pashupati in my answer here:

येषामीशे पशुपतिः पशूनां चतुष्पदामुत च द्विपदम् ।। [YajurVeda 3.1.4]
Which Pashus do the Pashupati rules? He rules both the two footed and four footed.

Similarly in AtharvaVeda 4.28:

भवाशर्वौ मन्वे वां तस्य वित्तं ययोर्वामिदं प्रदिशि यद्विरोचते।
यावस्येशाथे द्विपदो यौ चतुष्पदस्तौ नो मुञ्चतमंहस ।। (AtharvaVeda 4.28)

Everything that shines is under your control Oh Bhava and Sarva. Oh Isha you are the lord of all two footed and four footed, Deliver us from grief and trouble.

He is the bestower of power to the Gods:

यो देवानां प्रथमं पुरस्ताद्विश्वाधिको रुद्रो महर्षिः ।
हिरण्यगर्भं पश्यत जायमान स नो देवः शुभयास्मृत्या संयुनक्तु ॥ १२॥ (Taittariya Aranyaka 10.12)

He who is the first among the Gods, that Rudra who is the great seer who is higher than the Universe (VishwaAdhik), he is the one who saw Hiranyagarbha being born.

यो देवानां प्रभवश्चोद्भवश्च विश्वाधिपो रुद्रो महर्षिः ।
हिरण्यगर्भं जनयामास पूर्वं स नो बुद्ध्या शुभया संयुनक्तु ॥ (Svetasvatara Upanishad 4.12)

He, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the Support of the universe, Rudra the omniscient, who at the beginning gave birth to Hiranyagarbha− may He endow us with clear intellect!

5) Knowing/ Worshipping him bestows Moksha:

Yet another thing which is told about Brahman is, knowing Brahman one is freed from all bonds.

Similarly, knowing Shiva automatically all bonds are broken. I discuss verses related to this in my answer here and here. Svetasvatara Upanishad 4.16 states:

घृतात् परं मण्डमिवातिसूक्ष्मं
           ज्ञात्वा शिवं सर्वभूतेषु गूढम् ।
विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितारं
           ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपाशैः ॥ १६॥

He who knows Brahman, who is Shiva, extremely subtle, like the film that rises to the surface of clarified butter and is hidden in all beings−he who knows the radiant Deity, the sole Pervader of the universe, is released from all his Pãshas.

Similarly worshipping the Three Eyed Lord also bestows Immortality. RigVeda 7.59.12, Taittariya Samhita of YajurVeda in 1.8.6.i, Vajasena Samhita of YajurVeda in 3.60 state:

त्र्यम्बकं यजामहे सुगन्धिं पुष्टिवर्धनम्
उर्वारुकमिव बन्धनान्मृत्योर्मुक्षीय माऽमृतात् ।।

We worship the Three-eyed Lord who is fragrant and who nourishes and nurtures all beings. As is the ripened cucumber freed from its bondage (to the creeper), may He liberate us from death for the sake of immortality.

And the Atharvasiras Upanishad states:

अग्निरिति भस्म वायुरिति भस्म जलमिति भस्म स्थलमिति भस्म व्योमेति भस्म सर्वंह वा इदं भस्म मन एतानि
चक्षूंषि यस्माद्व्रतमिदं पाशुपतं यद्भस्म नाङ्गानि
संस्पृशेत्तस्माद्ब्रह्म तदेतत्पाशुपतं पशुपाश
विमोक्षणाय ॥ ५॥

He converts fire, air, water, earth, ether and everything that eexists here in to ash. He who sees this and mentally realizes it and observes the “penance to Pashupati ” and who coats ash all over his body with this ash attains the state of Brahman. By worshipping “Pasupathi” like this, the ties of bondage of all beings get cut and they attain salvation.

Thus, in the Samhitas, in the Brahmanas, in the Aranyakas and in the Upanishads Lord Shiva is revealed as Brahman.


Here are Some verses from sruti literature that is Vedas and Upanishad, Mainly from Rig-Veda , Shvetashvatara Upanishad and The Atharvashiras Upanishad .

Here Rig-Veda Mandala 6 –Sukta 49 –Verse 10 says

भुवनस्य पितरं गीर्भिराभी रुद्रं दिवा वर्धया रुद्रमक्तौ |
बर्हन्तं रष्वमजरं सुषुम्नं रधग घुवेम कविनेषितासः ||

Rudra by day, Rudra at night we honour with these our songs, the Universe's Father. Him great and lofty, blissful, undecaying let us call specially as the Sage impels us.

Here, Rudra is referred as ‘Universe’s Father’. The Sanskrit word used is ‘Bhuvanasya which means pitaH(father) of all Bhuvanas (worlds). (Lord or Sovereign of the Universe)

Here You can also read English and Sanskrit translation.

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad (श्वेताश्वतरोपनिशद is an ancient Sanskrit text embedded in the Yajurveda. Verses 3.1 through 3.6 of the Svetasvatara Upanishad describe the "Atman, Soul, Self" as the personal God, as the one and only Lord, that resides within, the origin of all gods, calling it the Isha , Rudra.

एको हि रुद्रो न द्वितियाय तस्थु-र्य ईमाल्लोकानिशत ईशनीभि: |
प्रत्यङ् जनांस्तिष्ठति संकुचोचान्तकाले संयुज्य विश्वा भुवतानि गोपा: || SU 3.2||

eko hi rudro na dvitīyāya tasthe ya imāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ /
pratyaṅ janās tiṣṭhati saṃcukocāntakāle saṃsṛjya viśvā bhuvanāni gopāḥ // 3.2 //

Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time.

Brahman as the individual and the highest soul – Fourth Adhyāya

यो देवानां प्रभवश्चोद्भ्वश्च विश्वाधिपो रुद्रो महर्षि: |
हिरण्यगर्भ पश्यत जायमानं स नो बुदभ्या शुभया संयुनक्तु || SU 4.12 ||

yo devānāṃ prabhavaś codbhavaś ca viśvādhiko rudro maharṣiḥ / hiraṇyagarbhaṃ paśyata jāyamānaṃ sa no buddhyā śubhayā saṃyunaktu // SU 4.12//

He, the source of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the Support of the universe, Rudra the omniscient, who at the beginning gave birth to Hiranyagarbha-may He endow us with clear intellect!

This is a prayer to Rudra for obtaining a pure, auspicious and subtle intellect so that one can realize Brahman. Rudra is described as maharshi- the omniscient seer, the creator of lesser cosmic powers such as Agni, Vayu etc., the sustainer of the universe and the creator of hiranyagarbha - Cosmic seed at the beginning of creation (Brahman).

The Atharvashiras Upanishad is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism. It is among the 31 Upanishads associated with the Atharvaveda. The Atharvasiras Upanishad has been an important text in the Pashupata Shaivism tradition and the Nath Yogi movement founded by Gorakhnath.[29] It contains the vow of those who enter monastic life in these traditions

Rudra is the exalted one, is all gods, is universe

ॐ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च ब्रह्मा तस्मै वै नमोनमः ॥ १॥

ब्रह्म स एकः य एकः स रुद्रः य रुद्रः यो रुद्रः स ईशानः य ईशानः स भगवान् महेश्वरः ॥ ३॥

  1. (He said): “I am eternal and non-eternal, I am Brahma, I am eastern and western quarters, south and north, up and down, the quarters and cross quarters, I am man and otherwise, woman, I am Gayatri, Savitri, Sarasvati, Trishtup, Jagati, and Anushtup, I am the metre, I am Garhapatya, Dakshina and Ahavaniya fires, I am truth, I am the Cow (the Cow of plenty) Gauri, the first born, superior and best, I am Water and Light, I am the Rik, Yajus, Saman, and Atharvangirasa, I am perishable and imperishable, I am to be protected and kept in secrecy, I am the forest, I am the lotus (universe), I am pure, top, center, out-side and front, and I am the light which is in ten quarters and otherwise.” I alone exist. All are equal to me.

  2. Next, why is it called the Supreme Brahman? The mere recitation of it makes him great.

here is Sanskrit Atharvashiras Upanishad and here is English translation.

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