In ancient India, we had world famous educational institutions like Takshsila, Nalanda and Benaras etc.

My question:

How was the education system in ancient India? Institutions willing to provide free education to everyone? or specific group of people?

  • 2
    This is a nice Q but an out and out historical one. So not sure if it will be allowed.
    – Rickross
    Aug 5, 2017 at 7:32
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    Scriptures do say one must not charge for teaching Vedas.
    – The Destroyer
    Aug 5, 2017 at 7:37
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    This is a history question so I'm not posting an answer, you can read Wikipedia page of Taxila University. There was 2 category of students, Paying(usually Prince) and non-paying. Paying students were taught during the day and non-paying students during night. Also kings used to provide financial help to poor students. Apart from this, in Gurukula taking fees was prohibited because Shisya and Guru's relationship was considered very sacred.... Hope it helps you.
    – Explorer
    Aug 5, 2017 at 11:45
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    Yes. vidya vaidyam AhAram na vikrayEt. However the student is obligated to offer a guru dakshina at the end of their studies. Kings patronised and took care of sages and veda scholars.
    – user1195
    Aug 5, 2017 at 15:15
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    If not mistaken history of Hinduism is still within scope of HSE. So not sure why members are voting for it to be closed Feb 6, 2021 at 5:25

1 Answer 1


No, it wasn't free.

Eklavya, who possessed the art of archery (Dhanusha) from Drona by virtual means, also was held responsible to pay it by giving away his thumb.

Then Drona, O king, addressed Ekalavya, saying, 'If, O hero, thou art really my pupil, give me then my fees.' On hearing these words, Ekalavya was very much gratified, and said in reply, 'O illustrious preceptor, what shall I give? Command me; for there is nothing, O foremost of all persons conversant with the Vedas, that I may not give unto my preceptor.' Drona answered, 'O Ekalavya, if thou art really intent on making me a gift, I should like then to have the thumb of thy right hand [Adi Parva]

Drona also took the 'fees' from Kuru-s.

Drona thought the time had come when he could demand the preceptorial fee. And, O king, assembling his pupils one day together, the preceptor Drona asked of them the fee, saying, 'Seize Drupada, the king of Panchala in battle and bring him unto me. That shall be the most acceptable fee.' [Adi Parva]

in Santi Parva, Bhishma suggests that the fees should be given to those Brahmana-s who are in need of it. Others can be given the [Guru] Dakshina:

... to discharge their obligations to preceptors and the Pitris, and pass their days in reciting and studying the scriptures, wealth and knowledge, O Bharata, should be given. 1 Unto those Brahmanas that are not poor, only the Dakshina, 2
1 In India, from the remotest times, preceptors are excluded from charging their pupils any fees for the instruction they give. No doubt, a final fee, called Gurudakshina, is demandable, but that is demandable after the pupil has completed his studies. To sell knowledge for money is a great sin. To this day in all the indigenous tols of the country, instruction is imparted free of all charges. In addition to this, the pupils are fed by their preceptors. The latter, in their turn, are supported by the charity of the whole country.
2 Dakshina is the present or gift made in sacrifices.

And there is nothing wrong in it. If a student learns any art from a teacher, then he becomes indebted (Guru runa). This debt was usually paid by Guru Dakshina, in earlier times when physical currency weren't famous. Moral debt is the most costly thing & hence Kshatriya-s or any self-dignified person should never carry that.

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    I think real reason for asking Ekalavya's thumb as Guru Dakshina is different. See this answer.
    – The Destroyer
    Aug 6, 2017 at 5:15
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    modern day definition of fees is different from olden days 'dakshina'.. which has better connotation as donation given out of respect. Fees is upfront, before education. Dakshina is after education. So in that sense it is free.
    – ram
    Aug 6, 2017 at 5:25

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