The following Veda Mantra describes the Divine Sun as the inner soul of all that exists.
Chitram devAnAm udagAd anikam chakshur mitrasya varunasya agneh (1),
AprA dyAvAprithivi antarikshma (2), surya AtmA jagatas tasthushah cha
The wonderful face of the Gods has arisen, the eye of the Mitra,
Varuna and Agni (1); The Sun has filled the Heaven and the Earth and
the middle space (2), He, the soul of all that moves and moves not
Rig Veda 1.115.1
The following Mantra describes the Sun as the highest light.
Udvayam tamasas pari jyotih pashyanta uttaram (1), devam devatrA
suryam aganma jvotir uttamam (2).
Beholding the higher Light beyond the darkness (1), We came to the
Divine Sun in the Godhead, to the highest Light of all (2).
Rig Veda 1.50.10
And, the following Mantra, from the Purusha Suktam, has Aditya or Sun as its Devata.
Hrih cha lakshmih cha patnyau (1) ahorAtre pArshve (2) nakshatrAni
rupam (3) ashvinau vyAttam (4) ishtam manishAna (5) amum manishAna (6)
sarvam manishana (7)||
O Sun, Hri and Lakshmi are your consorts, (1) Day and night your sides
(2), Asterisms in the sky are your form (3), The Asvins are thy mouth
(4); Being such, grant me whatever i desire (5), (grant me) happiness
here (6) and other objects od desire (spiritual illumination).
VAjansaneyi SamhitA 31.22
Additional commentary on the Vedic Sun (adapted from Sri Aurobindo):
Surya is the both the highest Light and the highest Truth. The light
of the physical solar orb seen in the physical form or body of that
Divine Sun. To the Vedic Rishis there is only one universal Deva of
which all other names are alike forms and cosmic aspects. Surya is the
symbol of this universal Deva. He is the soul of all that moves and
The Sun inside us and the sun outside is covered by darkness, the
forces of ignorance. When, by the force of tapas, he wakes up
destroying the forces of ignorance. He ascends with his seven shining
horses or energies to utter ocean of higher existence. He leads us to
the Truth and Immortality beyond evil and darkness.
Updating the answer (adding verses from Upanishad and passages from PurAna):
I actually missed reading (as usual) that you are asking verses from any scriptures and not just from the Vedas only.
So, here are a few verses from the Suryopanishad:
namaste Aditya |
tvame va pratyaksam karma kartAsi |
pratyaksam brahmAsi |
tvam-eva pratyaksam vishnurasi |
pratyaksam rudro’si |
tvam-eva pratyaksam rigasi |
yaju rasi |
tvam-eva pratyaksam sAmAsi |
tvam-eva pratyaksam atharvAsi
| tvam-eva sarvam chhando’si |
I bow to you Aditya; you are the agent himself of work, the manifest Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Rig, Yajur, Sama, Atharva Vedas, as well as all the chandas (Metres).
AdityAd vAyur jAyate |
AdityAd bhumir jAyate |
AdityAd āpo-jAyante |
AdityAj jyotir jAyate |
AdityAd vyoma diśo jAyante |
AdityAd vedA jAyante |
Adityo vA esa etan mandala tapati|
asAvAdityo brahma |
From Aditya are born air, earth, water, fire, sky, directions, Devas, Vedas; indeed the Sun gives warmth to this sphere (Planet) ; that Sun God is Brahman,
And, as far as the PurAnas are concerned, the Bhavishya PurAna extols Surya as the Supreme Being.
At the beginning of Kalpa, Tri Murthis became victims of Ahamkaar
(Self-image) and when a gigantic form of luminosity appeared on the
Sky, they were taken aback as to how this huge illumination emerged
from! As the Great Light approached and dazzled their vision, the
personification of Surya Deva in a Virat Rupa (Collosal Form) got
materialized, the Tri Murthis and Devaganas greeted it again and again
Lord BrahmA eulogized the VirAt Swarupa of Surya Deva as follows:
Namastey Deva Devesha Sahasra kiranojjvala,
Loka Deepa Namastestu
Bhaskaraaya Namo nityam Khakholkaya Namo
Vishnavey Kaalachakraaya Somaayaamita tejasey
Pancha Kaalaaya Indraaya Vasuretasey
Jadvitaya Devaaya Shivaayaamita tejasey
Tamoghnaaya Surupaaya tejasaam nidhaye namh
Mokshaaya Moksha rupaaya Suryaaya Namo
Krodhalobha viheenaaya lokaanaam sthith hetavey
Shubharupaaya Shubhadaaya Shubhhaatmaney
Shanatayesmaasu vai namah
Namastey Brahmarupaaya Braahmanaaya namo namah
Brahma DevaayaBrahmarupaya Brahmaney Paramaatmaney
prasaadam cha vai kuru Deva Jatpatey
Deva Devesha! Loka Deepa! Kona Vallabha! You are the source of
phenominal illumination to the whole World; You are all the Deities
like Bhaskara, Vishnu, Kaalachakra, Soma, Kaala, Indra, Vasu, Agni,
Khaga, Lokanatha rolled in one as the Ekachakri, bestowing
propitiousness and positiveness all over; You are the Embodiment of
Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha; You are the Personification of
Tranquility and Peace, devoid of anger, greed, jealousy and
partiality; You are the Parabrahma Himself!
Afterwards, Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu also eulogized Surya Deva in similar manner. You can read their stotrams to Surya on the linked page.