Bhagavad Gita says one who worships someone other than Lord Krishna is actually indirectly worshipping Him because He resides as the Indweller (Antaryami).

In the Kaushitaki Upanishad also, there is a story called "Indra's instruction to Pratardana", where Indra tells Pratardana to meditate on Indra as the supreme Brahman.

So if Pratardana can get moksha by meditating on Indra as the supreme Brahman, why can't others?

What does Sri Vaishnavism have to say about meditating on Devatas (and not Vishnu) as the supreme Brahman to attain Moksha?

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    No it wouldn't, because as I said, the Kaushitaki Upanishad is not telling people to meditate on Indra at all. When Indra is saying "me", he is not referring to himself at all, but to Brahman. – Keshav Srinivasan Oct 16 '17 at 20:51
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    Now as to what Sri Vaishnavism says about worshiping other gods, I'd make a few points. First of all, worshiping other gods is not a sin, but as I discuss in this answer there is a reason why many Sri Vaishnavas who have performed Sharanagati do not other gods. It's not because worshiping other gods is wrong, but because after Sharanagati you're considered "married" to Vishnu, and so worshiping other gods (outside of Sandhyavandhanam and the like) would like be cheating on your spouse. – Keshav Srinivasan Oct 16 '17 at 20:59
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    Second of all, according to Sri Vaishnavism there are two ways to get Moksha, Bhakti Yoga and Sharanagati. Bhakti Yoga is the one that involves meditating upon Brahman (along with doing Nishkama Karma and devotional service to Vishnu). Now in order to attain Moksha through meditation, you need to meditate upon Brahman correctly, i.e. you need to meditate upon the attributes that Brahman actually has, not attributes that he does not have. So if you meditate upon some being who isn't Brahman as Brahman (whether that being is some god other than Vishnu or even yourself) that won't lead to Moksha. – Keshav Srinivasan Oct 16 '17 at 21:05
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    Well, from a Sri Vaishnava point of view Vishnu simply is Brahman. But yes, there are certain attributes that Brahman possesses that no other beings possess, most notably the six Kalyana Gunas - Jnana, Bala, Aishwarya, Shakti, Virya, and Tejas. And more generally any two beings who are different have different attributes - if they had the same attributes they would be the same. – Keshav Srinivasan Oct 16 '17 at 23:16
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    Well yeah, they don't differ in their most fundamental attributes, but e.g. they differ in their histories, i.e. Karmas they've accumulated over infinitely many past births. – Keshav Srinivasan Oct 17 '17 at 0:40

adiyEn rAmAnuja dAsan

I have a very simple explanation from learning thiruvAimozhi and looking up meanings at a very superficial level.

nammAzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi; considered to be drAvida vEdam says in 1.1.5

avaravar thamadhamadhu aRivaRi vagai vagai avaravar iRaiyavar enavadi adaivargaL avaravar iRaiyavar kuRaivilar iRaiyavar avaravar vidhi vazhi adaiya ninRanarE

avaravar vidhivazhi adaiya ninRanar is explained as; emperumAn is present as the antharAthmA of those dhEvathAs who can take shelter of emperumAn (as explained in sAsthram) to fulfill the desires of their devotees.

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/03/thiruvaimozhi-1-1-5-avaravar-thamathamathu/

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