Famous philosopher, Osho Rajneesh has related triguna [3 modes] with 3 subatomic particles Proton, Neutron & Electron.
Now physicists are ready to agree with yoga. They have split the atom and they have come across three things: electrons, neutrons, protons. Those three are of the same three qualities: one is of the quality of light - sattva - stability; another is of the quality of rajas - activity, energy, force; and the third is of the quality of inertia - tamas. The whole world consists of these three gunas; and through these three Gunas, a man of awareness has to pass. He has to experience all these three gunas. And if you experience them as a harmony, which is the real discipline of yoga..Everybody experiences: sometimes you feel lazy, sometimes you feel so full of energy; sometimes you feel so good and light, and sometimes you feel so evil and bad; sometimes you are a darkness, and sometimes you are a dawn. You feel all these gunas. Many moments of them come continuously, you move in a wheel, but they are not in proportion. [source]
Then there is a continuous fight between mind modifications and the three attributes which Hindus say constitute your being. They say that sattwa, rajas, and tamas are the three constituents of the human personality. Sattwa is the purest, the very essential of all goodness, of all purity, of all saintliness, the holiest element in you. Then there is rajas, the element of energy, vigor, strength, power; and tamas, the element of laziness, inertia and entropy. These three constitute your being. And it seems that Hindus have a great insight into it, because these are the three things that physicists say are the constituents of matter, of the very atomic energy. They may call it the electron, proton, and neutron, but those are differences of name only. Hindus call it sattwa, rajas and tamas. [source]
"Are triguNas related to paramANu?"
No scriptural basis for this relation, as the science didn't advance in the present direction during earlier times. Osho is a "relational philosopher", who try to explain the concepts using analogies. It's a very interesting and easy way.
To summarise, Triguna-s is a philosophical concept and the ParamAnu-s (Quarks are still smaller) is a physical concept. Both are different.