What are the smallest and the largest unit of measurement of time used in vedic calculation and universe creation and what are other time units used and list of all conversation from smallest to largest (ex: from seconds to hours).
As per vedaga/vedic jyotisha. There is mention of many small and large time calculations. Smaller time units however, are extremely difficult to measure with equipment. There are many texts like Surya SiddhAnta which talk of time calculations.
In the Vedas, Time is equated with the Kala (Consciousness Time) is the source of the divisions of time. It unites procession recession and stasis.
“Kalo gatinivrtti sthiti: samdadhati” (Sankhayana Aranyaka 7.20).
Time, according to Surya Siddhanta, has both its virtual and practical divisions; the former is called murta (embodied), the latter amurta (virtual or Unembodied). The Surya Siddhanta delineates that ‘what begins with prana (respiration) is called real; that what begins with truti (atoms) is called unreal.
Smallest Unit of Time
Vedic astronomy give a very detailed division of the Time upto the lowest sub division level of prāņa (respiration), a time lapse of four seconds. The lowest sub divisions prāņa is the same part of the day as the minute is of the circle, so that a respiration of time is equivalent to a minute of apparent revolution of the heavenly bodies above the earth. The astronomical division of sidereal time are:
1 paramanu 60,750th of a second
1 truţi = 29.6296 microseconds
1 tatpara = 2.96296 milliseconds
1 nimesha = 88.889 milliseconds
45 nimesha = 1 prāņa 4 seconds
6 prāņa = 1 vinādī 24 seconds
60 vinādīs = 1 nadī 24 minutes
60 nādīs = 1 ahorātra
As, according to modern standards, 24 hours make 1 day and night, one finds that, 1 nādi or daņda is equal to 24 minutes, 1 vinādī is equal to 24 seconds, 1 asu or prāņa is equal to 4 seconds, 1 nimesha is equal to 88.889 milliseconds, 1 tatpara is equal to 2.96296 milliseconds and finally 1 truţi is equal to 29.6296 microseconds or 33,750th part of second. It is really amazing that the Indian astronomers, at such a long time ago, could conceive and obviously could measure such a small interval of time like truţi. It should be mentioned here that, 1 unit of prāņa is the time an average healthy man needs to complete one respiration or to pronounce ten long syllables called guravakşara.
Largest time calculations:
Mahakalpa — Brahma's Lifespan
Brahma (the creator) lives for 100 years of 360 such days and at the end, he is said to dissolve, along with his entire Creation, into the Paramātman (Eternal Soul). The scriptures put Brahma's age at 100 years in his unique time scale.
Brahma's life span is equal to 311,040,000,000,000 human years. This period in named as maha kalpa. A universe lasts only for one maha kalpa period. At the end of it the universe is completely destroyed together with the creator Brahma and a new universe would be created with a new Brahma. This cycle goes on endlessly. The Vedic universe passes through repetitive cycles of creation and destruction. During the annihilation of the universe, energy is conserved, to manifest again in the next creation.
1 maha kalpa 100 years of Brahma (311,040,000,000,000 human years)
Universe is neither created or destroyed. It is continuously undergoing transformation. The destruction is purely from within i.e. when you live universe exists else universe does not exists. This is true for all beings on earth. Translators just translate the sanskrit text without understanding the Vedas. Then they come up with some huge numbers which cannot make sense in anyone's lifetime. Time is fundamentally measured by rotation of earth around its axis with respect to the Sun. One rotation is a day. In a day there are 60 Ghatis. In every Ghati there is 24 Vighatis. The Western Pundits just reversed this and made it 24 hours and 60 minutes based on a atomic clock which keeps slipping some year by a second so a leap second is added. Nature only understands Ghati and Vighati.