I remember seeing some Vedic verses related to this (either in Rig or Atharva Veda) and they were either talking about all animals and in that humans were too there or like that only but thinking (humans=animals).

Can someone give proofs from Vedas and/or other texts like the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads (13 major ones), Manusmriti etc.

  • Why is Lord Shiva called Pashupati? Who are the Pashus? question and answer mentions it.
    – The Destroyer
    Dec 13, 2017 at 9:19
  • @ The Destroyer yes the sri rudram verse of lord ruing on two footed and four footed but i want other verses too. don't mind yah. Dec 13, 2017 at 9:23
  • I am deleting my answer for the time-being. Let me see the original verse in Sanskrit first. @Fiercelord
    – Rickross
    Dec 18, 2017 at 11:19
  • @FierceLord , Rickross : by any chance r u looking for आहार-निद्रा-भय-मैथुनं च समानमेतत्पशुभिर्नराणाम् । धर्मो हि तेषामधिको विशेषो धर्मेण हीनाः पशुभिः समानाः ॥
    – YDS
    Dec 21, 2017 at 3:09
  • well thanks @YDS but i am searching other thing this is known to me initially you can say that the verse which i have mentioned (forgoted one) i am finding that too. well thanks.;) Dec 23, 2017 at 10:06

1 Answer 1


In one of the answers, it was mentioned as follows:

Yajurveda states:

येषामीशे पशुपतिः पशूनां चतुष्पदामुत च द्विपदम् ।। [YajurVeda 3.1.4] Which Pashus do the Pashupati rules? He rules both the two footed and four footed.

A forerunner for this concept is available in Rig Veda I.114.1 & 9, dedicated to Rudra, in a subtle manner.

इ॒मा रु॒द्राय॑ त॒वसे॑ कप॒र्दिने॑ क्ष॒यद्वी॑राय॒ प्र भ॑रामहे म॒तीः । यथा॒ शमस॑द् द्वि॒पदे॒ चतु॑ष्पदे॒ विश्वं॑ पु॒ष्टं ग्रामे॑ अ॒स्मिन्न॑नातु॒रम् ॥१॥

These poetic thoughts do we proffer to Rudra, the powerful one with braided hair who rules over heroes, so that he will be luck for our two-footed and four-footed, so that everything in this settlement will be flourishing, free of affliction.

In the mantra 9 of the same Hymn, the poet describes himself as cowherd - पशु॒पा, indicating that the owner is Rudra, an epithet of the Almighty.

उप॑ ते॒ स्तोमा॑न् पशु॒पा इ॒वाक॑रं॒ रास्वा॑ पितर्मरुतां सु॒म्नम॒स्मे । भ॒द्रा हि ते॑ सुम॒तिर्मृ॑ळ॒यत्त॒माथा॑ व॒यमव॒ इत्ते॑ वृणीमहे ॥९॥

Like a cowherd, I have driven these praises close to you. Grant your favor to us, father of the Maruts, for your benevolence is auspicious, most merciful. It is just your aid that we choose.

  • Nice comment, but पशु॒पा can also mean the drinker of पशु॒, which fits well with Rudra being described as devouring. Nov 1, 2020 at 16:08

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