What are graha and Nakshatras?
Is there any story how they are created?
What are their effects to human?
How many graha and Nakshatras are there?
Is there a specific God for each of them? What are those names of God
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There are 9 Grahas and 27 Nakshatras.
From Matsya Purana the Navagrahas are:
Adithyaya Somaaya Mangalaaya Budhaayacha
Guru Shukra Sanirbhyascha Rahavey Ketavey Namah ||
Prostrations to the nine planetary deities- Surya, Chandra, Mangala, Budha, Brihaspati, Shukra, Shani, Rahu and Ketu.
They are all Devatas (Gods). Description of Surya and Moon, for example, are as follows:
Padmaasanah Padmakarah Padmagarbha samuddhitah,
Saptaashvah Saptarujjuscha Dwibhujah syaat sadaa Ravih ||
Surya Deva has two hands wearing two lotuses, seated on a lotus flower; his luster is abundant like that of the outside part of a lotus; Surya Deva is comfortably seated on a magnificent chariot driven by Seven Horses.
Swetah Swetaambaradharah Swetaashvah Swetavaahanah
Gadaapaanirdwibaahus cha Kartavyo varadah Shashee ||
Chandra Deva is of white colour, wears white clothes, has white horses, white chariot, with gada/ mace and Varada Mudra or sign of Protection.
Although, Rahu and Ketu were Asuras (demons), but they were later incorporated into the 9 Graha Devatas and are worshiped together with the other 7 as Navagrahas.
The Nakshtras are 27 in number as said earlier. From Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra's 3rd Chapter:
- Maitreya: “O Maharishi, you have affectionately explained about the incarnations of Grahas. Now kindly detail their characters and dispositions. 2-3. Parasar: “O Brahmin, listen to the account of placement of the heavenly bodies. Out of the many luminous bodies sighted in the skies some are stars, yet some are Grahas. Those, that have no movements, are the Nakshatras (asterisms). 4-6. Those are called ‘Grahas’, that move through the Nakshatras (or stellar mansions) in the zodiac. The said zodiac comprises of 27 Nakshatras commencing from Ashvini. The same area is divided in 12 parts equal to 12 ‘Rashis’ commencing from Mesh. The names of the Grahas commence from Surya. The Rashi rising is known, as ‘Lagn’. Based on Lagn and the Grahas, joining and departing from each other, the native’s good and bad effects are deducted. Addition from Santhanam till Sloka 7. The names of the 27 Nakshatras are Ashvini, Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrigasira, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pushya, Aslesha, Magha, Purvaphalguni, Uttaraphalguni, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Vishaka, Anuradha, Jyeshtha, Mula, Purvashadh, Uttarashadh, Shravana, Dhanishtha, Satabhisha, Purvabhadra, Uttarabhadra, Revati.
Yes, each Nakshtra is ruled by one of the Navagrahas. For example, the 1st Nakshtra (Aswini) is ruled by Ketu and the last (Revati) is ruled by Budha.
The complete list is as follows:
- Ashvini/Aswini अश्विनी (KetU)
- Bharani भरणी (Shukra)
- Krittika/Krithika कृत्तिका (Surya)
- Rohini रोहिणी (Chandra)
- Mrigashirsha मृगशीर्ष (Mangal)
- Ardra आर्द्रा (Rahu)
- Punarvasu पुनर्वसु (Brihaspati)
- Pushya पुष्य (Shani)
- Ashlesha आश्ळेषा/आश्लेषा (Budha)
- Magha मघा (Again Ketu and the same order given above follows)
- Purva Phalguni पूर्व फाल्गुनी
- Uttara Phalguni उत्तर फाल्गुनी
- Hasta हस्त
- Chitra चित्रा
- Swati स्वाति
- Vishakha विशाखा
- Anuradha अनुराधा
- Jyeshtha ज्येष्ठा
- Mula मूल
- Purva Ashadha पूर्वाषाढा
- Uttara Ashadha उत्तराषाढा
- Shravana श्रवण
- Dhanishtha श्रविष्ठा/धनिष्ठा
- Shatabhisha शतभिषक्/शततारका
- Purva Bhadrapada पूर्वभाद्रपदा/पूर्वप्रोष्ठपदा
- Uttara Bhadrapada उत्तरभाद्रपदा/उत्तरप्रोष्ठपदा
- Revati रेवती
What are their effects to human?
This is a very broad question and i am not answering it.
Persons become rich, poor, kings, and beggars, in consequence of their deeds and works, but not from the influence of stars. Many astrologers perform the marriages of their sons or daughters according to the oracles of astrology, still those marriages become unhappy – quarrels spoil conjugal love, parties turn widows or widowers. Had the astrological conclusions been true, no such thing would have happened. Therefore the fruits of actions are true and the motion of heavenly bodies is not the cause of human pleasure or pain. There is no visible connection between the stars in the sky and the human beings capable of doing works and living on the earth far away from them.
Human beings are the authors and the reapers of the fruits of their actions, and God makes them suffer the consequences of their actions. As you believe in the influence of stars, you should answer the question: When a man is born on a certain time whose horoscope you cast according to the positions of the polar star and other conjunctions, is there any other person born at the same time in the world? If you reply in the negative, it is false. But if you admit it, how is it that the one becomes, say, the universal emperor in the world, and the other does not? Well, if you confess that all this trickery is a shift to earn the bread of idleness, persons will readily believe it.
Swami Vivekananda also thought the same:
I have seen some astrologers who predicted wonderful things; but I have no reason to believe they predicted them only from the stars, or anything of the sort. In many cases it is simply mind-reading. Sometimes wonderful predictions are made, but in many cases it is arrant trash.