In 18th Chapter of BG, we find following verses -

The Lord abides in the hearts of all beings, O Arjuna, causing all of them to revolve by His power as if they were mounted on a machine. 61
Run to him for shelter with your whole being, O BhArata. By his grace you will attain the highest peace and the eternal abode. 62

Lord Krishna in just few 2-3 verses before, were asking Arjuna to mentally surrendering all actions to him(i.e Krishna) but suddenly he starts referring someone else to go for shelter in the above verses.

But again after 2-3 verses he changes pronoun and declare as follows -

Abandoning all other dharmas, come to Me alone for shelter. Do not grieve, for I will relieve you from all sins. 66

i.e, he changed the pronouns as I -> Him -> I within handful of verses.

Now, In the unique Kashmiri Shaiva commentary on Bhagwat Geeta by AchArya Abhinavupta he comments on this as follows -

... By the statement take refuge in him, and by my grace, the Lord brings together the nature of Parmeshvara, Ishvara and VAsudeva.

Although I couldn't understand whole paragraph (which I have omitted as ...), I am only curious to know this sentence only. Who exactly is Parmeshvara, Ishvara & Vasudeva? And what is the distinction? Do any scripture from any school of thought say anything on this?

  • Have added the tag Agama because Agamas are more likely to answer. Jan 1, 2018 at 6:08
  • Vasudeva is Lord Vishnu
    – user9969
    Jan 1, 2018 at 6:25
  • 1
    Parmeshvara -> Brahman (the Ultimate Reality); Ishwara -> Shiva or Rudra; VAsudeva -> Vishnu or Krishna
    – YDS
    Jan 1, 2018 at 13:24
  • I too guess so somewhat @YDS Jan 1, 2018 at 13:24
  • 2
    @Rishabh not Brahma (ब्रह्मा)..i mentioned Brahman (ब्रह्म)..Brahman means the Ultimate Reality or Supreme Being..few sects say Brahman is SadaShiva, few sects say Brahman is AdiNarayana or MahaVishnu..few other sects name it something else also..
    – YDS
    Jan 2, 2018 at 13:06

1 Answer 1


He is Krishna (in the present context).

According to English Translation of Abhinavgupta's Sanskrit Commentary By Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.61-62 Isvarah etc. Tam eva etc. This Lord, the Supreme Self, must be taken hold of as refuge. When that Supreme Ruler, the [real] Agent-of-all-actions, the [real] Knower, the very Self of your own, is reflected upon, there (in the heart) the [effects of] actions do not enjoy any locus standi. Indeed, the deer-calves which are of wavering mind [by nature] and are noted only for their power of running away to escape, do not take recourse to their skill in pursuing freely their [usual] activities while there dwells in the [nearby] cave a loin-calf, the glory of whose valour has been made evident by the accessories in the form of the heaps of pearls scattered from the elephants' temples broken upon with the very sharp edges of his (lion-calf's) excellent claws. By the cocluding statement that commences 'To Him alone you must go for refuge' and [runs] as 'Through My Grace etc.', the Bhagavat indicates the Lord Supreme Self, and Vasudeva krsna to be identical.

Adi Shankaracharya commentary also indicates this:

English Translation Of Sri Shankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Gambirananda

18.62 Gaccha saranam, take refuge; tam eva, in Him, the Lord alone; sarva-bhavena, with your whole being, for getting rid of your mundane sufferings, O scion of the Bharata dynasty. Tat-prasadat, through His grace, through God's grace; prapsyasi, you will attain; param, the supreme; santim, Peace, the highest Tranillity; and the sasvatam, eternal; sthanam, Abode, the supreme State of Mine who am Visnu.

18.63 Te, to you; akhyatam, has been imparted, spoken of; maya, by Me who am the omniscient God; iti, this; jnanam, knowledge; which is guhyataram, more secret; guhyat, than any secret-i.e. it is extremely profound, mystical. Vimrsya, pondering over, contemplating on; etat, this, the Scripture as imparted; asesena, as a whole, and also on all the subjects dealt with; kuru, do; yatha icchasi tatha, as you like. 'Once again, hear what is beng said by Me:'

Ishwar means who rules which can be applied to deities also. Parameshwar means the supreme ruler or say ruler of ruler which is almost identical to Paramatma or Brahman. Visit following related post:

Vasudeva is the name of Krishna, for etymology, Vasu means to dwell or abide, according to this answer.

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