Bibek Debroy says in his Ramayana translation, 'Hanumat is a case in point, where Hanuman seemed to be too contrary to grammatical principles'.
What grammatical principle is that? Is it really Hanumat in the Sanskrit original?
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The word Hanuman is made of हनु + मतुँप् = हनुमत् for which Hanuman is the correct word for Male - 1st Vibhakti - singular-
Most of तकारान्त (ends with त) words have similar kind of Vibhakti forms, for example-
Shrimat > Male - 1st Vibhakti - singular: Shriman
Bhudhhimat > Male - 1st Vibhakti - singular: Bhudhhiman
Anshumat > Male - 1st Vibhakti - singular: Anshuman
Gyanvat > Male - 1st Vibhakti - singular: Gyanvan
Bhagyavat > Male - 1st Vibhakti - singular: Bhagyavan
The all of the above words and many others similar words are formed using मतुँप् suffix.
Below are the vibhakti forms of हनुमत् -
In UTTARA KANDA of Valmiki Ramayana, all related words such as Hanumat, Hanumata, Hanumatah, Hanumataa, Hanumati and Hanumana etc. are mentioned based on the vibhakti:
Yes, the root of Hanuman (हनुमान्) is really hanumat (हनुमत्). As per vyakarana rules of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the word is formed by adding the मतुँप् (matum̐p) suffix to the word हनु (Hanu), meaning jaw.
Panini’s Ashtadhyayi gives the following sutra for the suffix:
तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुँप्॥ ५।२।९१
Meaning: that which belongs to him (or this) (तद् अस्य अस्ति इति) OR that which is on/in him (or this) gets the matum̐p suffix.
The Kashika Vritti commentary on the Ashtadhyayi gives an example: गावोऽस्य सन्ति गोमान्
Explanation: the cows (गो) (that) belongs to him and hence the cows get the matum̐p suffix and the person is called gomān. Meaning the one with the cows.
The reason why he got to this name relates to the incident of when as a child he goes to gobble the sun and has an encounter with Indra. As per Valmiki Ramayana Uttara Kanda:
Thereafter as he rushed on Saci’s consort, Indra, not unduly angered, with his finger loosed a thunderbolt that struck Hanuman and, at the impact, the child fell on a mountain, in his fall breaking his left jaw.
- Sarga 35
Since the thunderbolt escaped from my grasp and shattered his jaw, this child shall be called Hanuman.
- Sarga 36
Which means because his jaw (Hanu) was broken, the suffix ‘matum̐p’ was added to ‘Hanu’: हनु + मतुँप् = हनुमत्
It means the one to whom the broken jaw belongs or simply the one with the jaw.
Now while forming the vibhaktis, as rightly pointed by YDS in the photo, before editing, you will use the base Hanumat. That’s how you have the mantra Ham Hanumate Namah
For more information on how mat becomes mān in the first vibhakti, one can have a look at: Forming Hanumān from Hanumat.