The Moon that shastras are talking about is not the small satellite of Earth called modern Moon we see from Earth. This Moon is the higher adjacent orbital above the Sun that may/may not be perceived from this Earth. In the Vedic astrology there are 12 houses which are ruled by Sun and Moon while 10 houses are ruled by five planets twice. The arrangement is:
Vishnu Puran's astronomy (which Brahmagupta failed to understand) are talking about the arrangement of planetary orbits above Sun (situated at fifth plane/house in horoscope) and which are houses 11-4 and cant be seen from earth(because they are not luminaries unlike Suns/stars) but through yoga or astral travel, hence the same orbital planes reflect in the Vedic horoscope of everyone and in the same order.
The sphere of the earth (or Bhúr-loka), comprehending its oceans,
mountains, and rivers, extends as far as it is illuminated by the rays
of the sun and moon; and to the same extent, both in diameter and
circumference, the sphere of the sky (Bhuvar-loka) spreads above it
(as far upwards as to the planetary sphere, or Swar-loka). The solar
orb is situated a hundred thousand leagues from the earth; and that of
the moon an equal distance from the sun. At the same interval above
the moon occurs the orbit of all the lunar constellations. The planet
Budha (Mercury) is two hundred thousand leagues above the lunar
mansions. Śukra (Venus) is at the same distance from Mercury. Angáraka
(Mars) is as far above Venus; and the priest of the gods (Vrihaspati,
or Jupiter) as far from Mars: whilst Saturn (Sani) is two hundred and
fifty thousand leagues beyond Jupiter. The sphere of the seven Rishis
(Ursa Major) is a hundred thousand leagues above Saturn; and at a
similar height above the seven Rishis is Dhruva (the pole-star), the
pivot or axis of the whole planetary circle.
5 - Hundred thousand leagues above earth = Sun of 5th orbital house/plane
4 - Hundred thousand leagues above Sun = Moon of 4th orbital house/plane
3 - Two hundred thousand leagues above Moon = Mercury of 3rd orbital house/plane
2 - Two hundred thousand leagues above Mercury = Venus of 2nd orbital house/plane
1 - Two hundred thousand leagues above Venus = Mars of 1st orbital house/plane
12 - Two hundred thousand leagues above Mars = Jupiter of 12th orbital house/plane
11 - Two hundred and fifty thousand leagues above Jupiter = Saturn of 11th orbital house/plane
Hundred thousand leagues above Saturn = Ursa Major
Hundred thousand leagues above Ursa Major = Pole Star Dhruva (434 light years from earth as per modern science)
while the houses from 6th to 10th house represent the orbital planes visible to modern science through the today's telescopes and reflected micro copies of above planets located between the Pole star's and the Sun's axis.
6 - Below Sun = Mercury of 6th orbital house/plane
7 - Below Mercury = Venus of 7th orbital house/plane
8 - Below Venus = Mars of 8th orbital house/plane
9 - Below Mars = Jupiter of 9th orbital house/plane
10 - Below Jupiter = Saturn of 10th orbital house/plane
Note that Vishnu Purana and BPHS are narrated by sage Parashara who is well-versed in astrology and astronomy. Further, earth's satellite Moon is rejected because its in the orbit of earth but not the Sun itself while Uranus, Neptune, Pluto etc., are rejected in astrology because they are not visible from earth and their macro copy doesnot exist between the Pole star and the Sun.
Wherever earthy substance exists, which may be traversed by the feet,
that constitutes the sphere of the earth, the dimensions of which I
have already recounted to you. The region that extends from the earth
to the sun, in which the Siddhas and other celestial beings move, is
the atmospheric sphere, which also I have described. The interval
between the sun and Dhruva, extending fourteen hundred thousand
leagues, is called by those who are acquainted with the system of the
universe the heavenly sphere. These three spheres are termed transitory: the
three highest, Jana, Tapa, and Satya, are styled durable.
Now, the axis between Pole Star and Sun with the above astrological planets of houses/orbital planes 11-4 is called Swarga/Swaha Loka or 5th loka out of 14 lokas while the earth is on 7th loka Bhura and the space between Sun and Earth is the 6th loka Bhuvan as explained in the Vishnu Puran. These three lokas i.e. Bhur-Bhuva-Swaha are occupied by humans, Pitras(ancestors) and Devas(Gods) souls respectively.