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Section 2 of the Shalya Parva of Mahabharat mentions the kings whose support Duryodhan had in the great war:

This wide earth is as much ours as it is of Pritha's son. Bhagadatta and Kripa and Shalya and the two princes of Avanti and Jayadratha and Bhurishrava and Sala and Somadatta and Bahlika and Ashvatthama and the chief of the Bhojas and the mighty prince of Magadha and Vrihadvala and the ruler of the Kasi and Shakuni the son of Subala and many thousands of Mlecchas and Sakas and Yavanas, and Sudakshina the ruler of the Kambojas and the king of the Trigartas and the grandsire Bhishma and Bharadwaja's son and Gotama's son (Kripa) and Srutayush and Ayutayush and Satayush of great energy, and Jalasandha and Rishyasringa's son and the Rakshasa Alayudha, and the mighty-armed Alambusa and the great car-warrior Subala--these and numerous other kings, O best of monarchs, have taken up arms for my sake, prepared to cast away their very lives in great battle, stationed on the field amidst these, and surrounded by my brothers, I will fight against all the Parthas and the Pancalas and the Cedis, O tiger among kings, and the sons of Draupadi and Satyaki and Kunti-Bhoja and the rakshasa Ghatotkaca.

Do we have more details about the kings mentioned by Duryodhan and their respective kingdoms (with geographical location)? I am not interested in a complete list of kings that fought the war just the ones who supported Duryodhan.

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Let me go through these names one by one:

  1. Bhagadatta He was the son of Narakasura and king of Pragjyotisha, as described in many places including this chapter of the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata:

    And Dhritarashtra and Bhishma and Vidura of high intelligence; and all Kaurava brothers with Duryyodhana at their head; and Suvala the king of Gandhara and Sakuni endued with great strength; and Achala, and Vrishaka, and Karna that foremost of all charioteers; and Salya endued with great might and the strong Valhika; and Somadatta, and Bhuri of the Kuru race, and Bhurisravas and Sala; and Aswatthama, Kripa, Drona, and Jayadratha, the ruler of Sindhu; and Yajnasena with his sons, and Salya that lord of earth and that great car warrior king Bhagadatta of Pragjyotisha accompanied by all Mlechcha tribes inhabiting the marshy regions on the sea-shore; and many mountain kings, and king Vrihadvala; and Vasudeva the king of the Paundrayas, and the kings of Vanga and Kalinga; and Akastha and Kuntala and the kings of the Malavas and the Andhrakas; and the Dravidas and the Singhalas and the king of Kashmira, and king Kuntibhoja of great energy and king Gauravahana, and all the other heroic kings of Valhika; and Virata with his two sons, and Mavella endued with great might; and various kings and princes ruling in various countries; and, O Bharata king Sisupala endued with great energy and invincible in battle accompanied by his son--all of them came to the sacrifice of the son of Pandu.

    Wikipedia says that Pragjyotisha is Kamararupa, which is in Assam. But this chapter of the Ramayana and this chapter of the Mahabharata say that it's in the West.

  2. Kripa: He's not a king, he's just the guru of the Pandavas and Kaurava.

  3. Shalya: He was the brother of Pandu's wife Madri and the king of Madra, as described in this chapter of the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata:

    And the mighty hero [Nakula], proceeding thence to Sakala, the city of the Madras, made his uncle Salya accept from affection the sway of the Pandavas. And, O monarch, the illustrious prince deserving the hospitality and entertainment at his uncle's hands, was well entertained by his uncle. And skilled in war, the prince, taking from Salya a large quantity of jewels and gems, left his kingdom.

    The fact that Nakula conquered Madra implies that it's somewhere in the West. And indeed, Wikipedia says that it's in the Panjab province of Pakistan.

  4. Avanti: The two kings being spoken of are Vinda and Anuvinda, as described in this chapter of the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Allying himself with the vanquished tribes the prince then marched towards the countries that lay on the banks of the Narmada. And defeating there in battle the two heroic kings of Avanti, called Vinda and Anuvinda, supported by a mighty host, the mighty son of the twin gods exacted much wealth from them.

    Avanti is Ujjain, which is indeed on the banks of the Narmada river.

  5. Jayadratha: He was the husband of Dhirtarashta's daughter Duhsala and king of Sindhi, as described in this of the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata:

    And, O king, when the time came, the Kaurava monarch bestowed his daughter Duhsala on Jayadratha, the king of the Sindhus, agreeably to the counsels of Sakuni.

    Wikipedia says Sindhu is in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

  6. Bhurishravas: He was the son of Somadatta, as described in this chapter of of the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Vrihanta, Manimana, Dandadhara, Sahadeva, Jayatsena, Meghasandhi, Virata with his two sons Sankha and Uttara, Vardhakshemi, Susarma, Senavindu, Suketu with his two sons Sunama and Suvarcha, Suchitra, Sukumara, Vrika, Satyadhriti, Suryadhwaja, Rochamana, Nila, Chitrayudha, Agsuman, Chekitana, the mighty Sreniman, Chandrasena the mighty son of Samudrasena, Jarasandha, Vidanda, and Danda--the father and son, Paundraka, Vasudeva, Bhagadatta endued with great energy, Kalinga, Tamralipta, the king of Pattana, the mighty car-warrior Salya, the king of Madra, with his son, the heroic Rukmangada, Rukmaratha, Somadatta of the Kuru race with his three sons, all mighty chariot-fighters and heroes, viz., Bhuri, Bhurisrava, and Sala, Sudakshina, Kamvoja of the Puru race, Vrihadvala, Sushena, Sivi, the son of Usinara, Patcharanihanta, the king of Karusha, Sankarshana (Valadeva), Vasudeva (Krishna) the mighty son of Rukmini, Samva, Charudeshna, the son of Pradyumna with Gada, Akrura, Satyaki, the high-souled Uddhava, Kritavarman, the son of Hridika, Prithu, Viprithu, Viduratha, Kanka, Sanku with Gaveshana, Asavaha, Aniruddha, Samika, Sarimejaya, the heroic Vatapi Jhilli Pindaraka, the powerful Usinara, all these of the Vrishni race, Bhagiratha, Vrihatkshatra, Jayadratha the son of Sindhu, Vrihadratha, Valhika, the mighty charioteer Srutayu, Uluka, Kaitava, Chitrangada and Suvangada, the highly intelligent Vatsaraja, the king of Kosala, Sisupala and the powerful Jarasandha, these and many other great kings--all Kshatriyas celebrated throughout the world--have come, O blessed one, for thee.

    More on Somadatta presently.

  7. Sala: He was the brother of Bhurishravas and son of Somadatta, as described in the quote above.

  8. Somadatta: He was the son of Bahlika, as described in this chapter of the Drona Parva of the Mahabharata:

    The Parigha and the shaft, both terrible, fell simultaneously upon the body of the heroic Somadatta. That mighty car-warrior, thereupon, fell down. Beholding his son (Somadatta) thus fallen into a swoon, Valhika rushed at Satyaki scattering showers of arrows like a cloud in season.

    More on Bahlika presently.

  9. Bahlika: He was the brother of Shantanu and the oldest surviving warrior in the Mahabharata war, and he ruled the kingdom of his maternal grandfather, as described in this chapter of the Udyoga Parva of the Mahabharata:

    As regards Vahlika, abandoning his (paternal) kingdom he dwelt with his maternal uncle. Abandoning his father and brother, he obtained the highly wealthy kingdom of his maternal grandfather. With Vahlika's permission, O prince, Santanu of world-wide fame, on the death of his father (Pratipa), became king and ruled the kingdom.

    But what was his maternal grandfather's kingdom? Well, this chapter of the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata says that Pratipa's father-in-law was Shibi:

    And Pratipa married Sunanda, the daughter of Sivi, and begat upon her three sons, viz., Devapi, Santanu and Valhika.

    But I'm not sure whether this the same as the famous Shibi son of Usinara or where he ruled.

  10. Ashwatthama: He is not a king, but the son of Dronacharya.

  11. Bhojas: The king being referred to here is Kritavarma,as described in this chapter of the Karna Parva of the Mahabharata:

    That dweller of the Anarta country, that son of Hridika, that mighty car-warrior, that foremost one among the Satwatas, that chief of the Bhojas, Kritavarma, accomplished in arms, is on the field, desirous of battle.

    The passage says he ruled in Anarta, which Wikipedia says is in Northern Gujarat.

  12. Magadha: The king being referred to is Jarasandha's son Sahadeva, as described in this chapter of the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Then the son of Jarasandha, the high-souled Sahadeva, accompanied by his relatives and the principal officers of state, and with his priest in front came thither. And the prince, bending himself low and making large presents of jewels and precious stones, worshipped Vasudeva, that god among men. Then that best of men, Krishna, giving every assurance unto the prince afflicted with fear, accepted those presents of his of great value. And Krishna joyfully installed the prince there and then in the sovereignty of Magadha.

    Wikipedia says Magadha is in Southern Bihar.

  13. Brihadbala: He was the king of Ayodhya, as described in this chapter of the Udyoga Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Endued with great impetus and prowess, king Vrihadvala, the ruler of the Kosalas, is, in my judgment, O sire, equal to one Ratha.

  14. Kashi: The king being referred to is Subahu, as described in this chapter of the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Then Bhima of terrible prowess and long arms, vanquishing in battle the unretreating Suvahu the king of Kasi, brought him under complete sway.

    Kashi is modern-day Varanasi.

  15. Shakuni: He was the brother of Gandhari and son of Subala, king of Gandhara, as described in this chapter of the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Bhishma, the grandfather of the Kurus, having heard this, sent messengers unto the king of Gandhara. King Suvala at first hesitated on account of the blindness of the bridegroom, but taking into consideration the blood of the Kurus, their fame and behaviour, he gave his virtuous daughter unto Dhritarashtra and the chaste Gandhari hearing that Dhritarashtra was blind and that her parents had consented to marry her to him, from love and respect for her future husband, blindfolded her own eyes.

    Wikipedia says Gandhara is is the Peshawar valley, part of it being in Pakistan and part of it being in Afghanistan.

  16. Mlecchas: This is a generic term for people from outside the Indian subcontinent. But this chapter of the Sabha Parva of the Mahabharata describes some of them living on the West coast of India:

    And [Nakula] the son of Pandu then reduced to subjection the fierce Mlechchas residing on the sea coast, as also the wild tribes of the Palhavas, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and the Sakas.

  17. Sakas: Wikipedia says this refers to Scythians, but the above quote describes some of them living on the West coast of India.

  18. Yavanas: Wikipedia says this refers to Greeks, but the above quote describes some of them living on the West coast of India.
  19. Sudakshina: As the quote in the question says, he was the king of the Kamboja, which Wikipedia says is partly in Kashmir and partly outside of India.
  20. Trigarta: The king being referred to is Susharman, as described in this chapter of the Virata Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Susarman, the king of the Trigartas, challenged Matsya to a single combat on car.

  21. Bhishma: He wasn't a king, but the great uncle of the Pandavas and Kauravas.

  22. Drona: He wasn't a king either, but the guru of the Pandavas and Kauravas.
  23. Gautama's son: If the translator is right, this refers to Kripa, but that would be weird since Kripa is the second figure mentioned. But I'm not sure what other son of Gautama this could refer to.
  24. Srutayush: This is another name for Srutayusha, who was the king of Kalinga as described in this chapter of the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata:

    And Suvala's son Sakuni, and Salya, Jayadratha and the two princes of Avanti named Vinda and Anuvinda, and the Kekaya brothers, and Sudakshina the ruler of the Kamvojas and Srutayudha the ruler of the Kalingas, and king Jayatsena, and Vrihadvala the ruler of the Kosalas, and Kritavarman of Satwata's race,--these ten tigers among men, endued with great bravery and possessing arms that looked like maces,--these performers of sacrifices with plentiful gifts (to Brahmanas), stood each at the head of an Akshauhini of troops.

    Wikipedia says Kalinga is partly in Odisha and partly in Andhra Pradesh.

  25. Ayutayush: It's unclear who this is, but maybe he's related to Srutayush.

  26. Satayush: It's unclear who this is, but maybe he too is related to Srutayush.
  27. Jalasandha: He was one of the hundred Kauravas, as described in the chapter of the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata:

    Their names, O king, according to the order of birth, are Duryodhana, Yuyutsu, Duhsasana, Duhsaha, Duhsala, Jalasandha, Sama, Saha, Vinda and Anuvinda, Durdharsha, Suvahu, Dushpradharshana, Durmarshana and Durmukha, Dushkarna, and Karna; Vivinsati and Vikarna, Sala, Satwa, Sulochana, Chitra and Upachitra, Chitraksha, Charuchitra, Sarasana, Durmada and Durvigaha, Vivitsu, Vikatanana; Urnanabha and Sunabha, then Nandaka and Upanandaka; Chitravana, Chitravarman, Suvarman, Durvimochana; Ayovahu, Mahavahu, Chitranga, Chitrakundala, Bhimavega, Bhimavala, Balaki, Balavardhana, Ugrayudha; Bhima, Karna, Kanakaya, Dridhayudha, Dridhavarman, Dridhakshatra, Somakitri, Anudara; Dridhasandha, Jarasandha, Satyasandha, Sada, Suvak, Ugrasravas, Ugrasena, Senani, Dushparajaya, Aparajita, Kundasayin, Visalaksha, Duradhara; Dridhahasta, Suhasta, Vatavega, and Suvarchas; Adityaketu, Vahvashin, Nagadatta, Agrayayin; Kavachin, Krathana, Kunda, Kundadhara, Dhanurdhara; the heroes, Ugra and Bhimaratha, Viravahu, Alolupa; Abhaya, and Raudrakarman, and Dridharatha; Anadhrishya, Kundabhedin, Viravi, Dhirghalochana Pramatha, and Pramathi and the powerful Dhirgharoma; Dirghavahu, Mahavahu, Vyudhoru, Kanakadhvaja; Kundasi and Virajas.

  28. Rishyasringa's son: This refers to the Rakshasa Alambusha, though I'm not sure why he's listed twice.

  29. Alayudha: He was another Rakshasa as the quote in the question makes clear.
  30. Subala: He was the father of Shakuni and king of Gandhara, as the quote in 15 makes clear.
  • Splendid let me go through these and will post any questions if I have. :) – Dr. Vineet Aggarwal Jan 18 '18 at 9:25
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    @Dr.VineetAggarwal By the way, there are much more comprehensive listings of kingdoms in the Mahabharata. For instance, in the Sabha Parva when the Pandavas go out in all four directions as part of the Rajasuya Yagna. – Keshav Srinivasan Jan 19 '18 at 16:37
  • Ya that I know I just wanted to understand who the supporters of Kauravs were. – Dr. Vineet Aggarwal Jan 20 '18 at 19:47
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    Sahadeva (son of Jarasandha) fought for the Pandavas, the son of Jarasandha referred to is Jayatsena (so I remember), while the Jalasandha mentioned is a king belonging to Magadha who was killed by Satyaki on the 14th. – Gabriel Alexander Gonzalez Agu Dec 30 '18 at 0:29

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