What is the proper meaning of the following phase? How do they relate to each other in the following manner?

If the Rig Veda is the word, Sama Veda is the song or the meaning. If Rig Veda is the knowledge, Sama Veda is its realization. If Rig Veda is the wife, the Sama Veda is her husband.


The relation between Rik and Saman is described in Chandogya Upanishad -Adhyaya 1 - verse 2.

एषां भूताना पृथिवि रस: पृथिव्या आपो रस: |
अपामोषधयो रस औषधीनां पुरुषो रस: पुरुषस्य वासग्रो
वाच ऋग्रस ऋच :साम रस: साम्न उद्गित्थो रस: ||2||

The earth is essence of all the beings ; Water is the essence of the earth ;Herbs are essence of water ; Man is essence of herbs ;Speech is essence of man ; Rik is essence of speech ; Saman is the essence of Rik ; Udgita is essence of Saman .

In simple words Sama is Rasa or essence of Rig-Veda i.e. That is most essential part.

Explanation- Basically this mantra is meant for givings us the idea of Importance Sama-Veda and above all significance of letter "Om" "ॐ".This is explained by giving the examples.

Adi Shankaracharya in his commentary on the above Verse is explaining this mantra as thus.

Prithivi (earth) is the "Ashrya" i.e. residing place of rest of the Bhutas i.e. elements.(Agni ,Vayu ,Jal etc.).

The "Aap" jal or water is essence of this earth. Because earth is full of water. (Also water is the support of life on earth ).The essence of water is "Aushadhi's" or "Food" , (because from the water itself food and medicine's are grown) ,which keeps us alive and healthy. The essence of these "Aushadhi's" or "food" is human body. Because our body sustains on food and gets rejuvenated by food and medicine.

The important part or essence of this human body is "Vaak" i.e. speech.(good speech). Because the good speech is "result of healthy body and mind. The most important or residual part of all of the speech is Rik (i.e.Rig-Veda) mantras. And the Saman or Sam-Veda is even more refined part of Rik. i.e. Sama is essence (most important part) of Rik mantras. And the ultimate essence of Sama is "Udgita" i.e. Om (for Sam-Vedis).

We can read Chandogya Upanishad hindi with Shankar's commentary here.

We can also listen to a very good explanation of this Verse given by Acharya Satyajit Arya .(You Tube)

Seek 5.42

  • Good link is provided, I may learn many things from that. But it took so much time load may be my slow network. Yes I would like to know about all the 3 relations, how each relations satisfy. Jan 17 '18 at 17:24
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    Ok , I will explain this relations in answer , will update the answer tomorrow. BTW do you know hindi? I will provide a good video link explaining all in answer. :-) Jan 17 '18 at 17:26
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    @KailashChandraPolai And yes this could be because of slower connection. I will add the screenshot as well as hindi commentary in answer tomorrow. Jan 17 '18 at 17:28
  • Yes, I do as i stay in Mumbai Jan 17 '18 at 17:36
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    Perfect answer! Indeed that Chhandogya verse nicely explains it.
    – Pandya
    Jan 18 '18 at 12:22

In his Introduction to his book The Upanishads: A New Translation, Swami Nikhilananda writes (p 3):

Vyasa compiled the Rig-Veda by collection the riks. Of the samans he composed the Sama-Veda, while the Yajur-Veda he composed of yajus. The Rig-Veda, which may be called a book of chants, is set to certain fixed melodies. The Sama-Veda has no independent value; for it consists mostly of stanzas from the Rig-Veda. The arrangement of its verses is solely with reference to their place and use in the Soma-sacrifice. The Yajur-Veda contains, in addition to verses taken from the Rig-Veda, many original prose formulas which may be called sacrificial prayers.

So the Sama Veda is Rig Veda and was arranged for ease of use by priests in the Soma sacrifice.

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