5

Who had the sacred knowledge of Bhagavat Gita before Arjuna?

I am not sure but I listen that lord Shiva and lord Sun know it before Arjuna?

How did they come to know?

2

4 Answers 4

5

Krishna briefly describes it who learned the knowledge contained in the Bhagavad Gita previously in chapter 4 of the Bhagavad Gita:

I instructed this imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvān, and Vivasvān instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Ikṣvāku. This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way. But in course of time the succession was broken, and therefore the science as it is appears to be lost. That very ancient science of the relationship with the Supreme is today told by Me to you because you are My devotee as well as My friend and can therefore understand the transcendental mystery of this science.

This is referring to the passing down of the Pancharatra tradition, and it's described in more detail in this chapter of the Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata:

During the seventh birth of Brahma due to the lotus, O king, that sprang from the navel of Narayana, this cult was once more declared by Narayana himself, unto the Grandsire of pure soul, the Creator of all the worlds, in the beginning of this Kalpa. The Grandsire gave it in days of yore to Daksha (one of his sons created by a fiat of his will). Daksha, in his turn, imparted it to the eldest of all the sons of his daughters, O monarch, viz., Aditya who is senior in age to Savitri. From Aditya, Vivaswat obtained it. In the beginning of the Treta Yuga, Vivaswat imparted the knowledge of this cult to Manu. Manu, for the protection and support of all the worlds, then gave it to his son Ikshaku. Promulgated by Ikshaku, that cult over-spreads the whole world. When the universal destruction comes, it will once more return to Narayana and be merged in Him. The religion which is followed and practised by the Yatis, has, O best of kings, been narrated to thee before this in the Hari Gita, with all its ordinances in brief. The celestial Rishi Narada got it from that Lord of universe, viz., Narayana himself, O king, with all its mysteries and abstract of details. Thus, O monarch, this foremost of cults is primeval and eternal. Incapable of being comprehended with ease and exceedingly difficult of being practised, it is always upheld by persons wedded to the attribute of Sattwa.

The Hari Gita is another name for the Bhagavad Gita, and as the passage says it encapsulates the teachings of Pancharatra.

4

"Who had the sacred knowledge of Bhagavat Gita before Arjuna?"

May not be the current "Bhagavad Gita" as it is, but at least the core message about Yoga system was told before.

BG 4.1 - The Blessed Lord said I imparted this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvan, Vivasvan taught this to Manu, and Manu transmitted this to Ishavaku.
BG 4.2 - The king-sages knew this (yoga) which was received thus in regular succession. That Yoga, O destroyer of foes, is now lost owing to a long lapse of time.

Many translators have translated Vivasana as Sun.

"How did they come to know?"

Similar Qn was asked by Arjuna as well:

BG 4.4 - Arjuna said, 'Your birth was later, [whereas] the birth of Vivasvan was earlier. How am I to understand this that You instructed [him] in the beginning?'

Now, Krishna doesn't answer to that directly. But we have to infer from the below verse that, during any of his previous births, Krishna would have departed the knowledge of Yoga to Vivasana.

BG 4.5 - The Blessed Lord said O Arjuna, many lives of Mine have passed, and so have yours. I know them all, (but) you know not, O scorcher of enemies!

Note: All the translations by Gambhirananda

1

The eternal knowledge of Bhagvad Gita was first instructed by supreme lord Krishna to Vivisvan, the sun god. Vivisvan instructed it to Manu. Manu revealed it to Ikshvaku. So,

Lord Krishna - Vivisvan - Manu - Ikshvaku.

However eventually the chain was broken and the knowledge was forgotten. Through Arjuna, lord Krishna again restored this knowledge on the world.

The Blessed Lord said: I instructed this imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvan, and Vivasvan instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Iksvaku.

https://asitis.com/4/1.html

This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way. But in course of time the succession was broken, and therefore the science as it is appears to be lost.

https://vedabase.io/en/library/bg/4/2/

Shanti parva further elaborates on this confirming that the source of the knowledge is the eternal Narayana ( Vishnu ) himself. Hence as it came from Narayana ( Hari ), the Bhagvad Gita is also known as the Hari Gita.

1

Who heard the Sacred Knowledge of Gita before Arjuna.? How Bhagawan Shiva and Suryadev knows it.?

Sri Ishwara Gita Chapter 1.:

In badarikashrama, a group of celestial sages were doing penance desirous to know about the atman-tatva. They were all blemishless at heart. They wanted to know about the Brahman.

सनत्कुमारः सनकस्तथैव च सनन्दनः । अङ्गिरा रुद्रसहितो भृगुः परमधर्मवित् ॥ १.१६॥ कणादः कपिलो योगी वामदेवो महामुनिः । शुक्रो वसिष्ठो भगवान् सर्वे संयतमानसाः ॥ १.१७॥ परस्परं विचार्यैते संशयाविष्टचेतसः । तप्तवन्तस्तपो घोरं पुण्ये बदरिकाश्रमे ॥ १.१८॥

“The sages like Sanatkumara, sanaka, sanandana, angira, rudra, bhrigu, kumada, kapila, garga, vamadeva, sukra, vashishtha, and all such sages, whose mind were under control, consulting among themelves, had performed the severe penance at Badarikashrama”.

अपश्यंस्ते महायोगमृषिं धर्मसुतं शुचिम् । नारायणमनाद्यन्तं नरेण सहितं तदा ॥ १.१९॥

Meaning: - Then they behold the son of Dharma, Narayana who is without begin or end accompanied by Nara.

Then all those sages prayed to those two great personalities with various hymns and offered their salutations to sage narayana. Sage narayana although being aware of the desire of the sages, yet asks them what was their desire.

विज्ञाय वाञ्छितं तेषां भगवानपि सर्ववित् । प्राह गम्भीरया वाचा किमर्थं तप्यते तपः ॥ १.२१॥

Meaning: - “Becoming aware of the desire of the sages, the omniscient lord spoke in deep voice, “what for are you performing the tapas (penance)?””.

किं कारणमिदं कृत्स्नं कोऽनुसंसरते सदा । कश्चिदात्मा च का मुक्तिः संसारः किंनिमित्तकः ॥ १.२६॥ कः संसारपतीशानः को वा सर्वं प्रपश्यति । किं तत् परतरं ब्रह्म सर्वं नो वक्तुमर्हसि ॥ १.२७॥

Meaning: - Who is the cause of this creation? What always moves in the world? What is Liberation? What is main purpose behind this Creation? Who is the lord of Universe? What is Brahman beyond all this? Kindly solve our doubts’ requested yogins.

Then Sage Narayana turned Into Lord Vishnu himself and called Bhagawan Shiva secretly through yoga.

एवमुक्ता तु मुनयः प्रापश्यन् पुरुषोत्तमम् । विहाय तापसं रूपं संस्थितं स्वेन तेजसा ॥ १.२८॥ विभ्राजमानं विमलं प्रभामण्डलमण्डितम् । श्रीवत्सवक्षसं देवं तप्तजाम्बूनदप्रभम् ॥ १.२९॥

Meaning: - Saying thus sages look upon Narayana who appeared in his real form (the form of Sri Hari Vishnu) possessing the excellent lustre. Bearing “Srivatsa” mark on his chest.

शङ्खचक्रगदापाणिं शार्ङ्गहस्तं श्रियावृतम् । न दृष्टस्तत्क्षणादेव नरस्तस्यैव तेजसा ॥ १.३०॥

Meaning: - Nara-Rshi became invisible due to the brilliant lustre of Narayana holding Shanka, Chakra, Mace and was accompanied by Devi Lakshmi.

तदन्तरे महादेवः शशाङ्काङ्कितशेखरः । प्रसादाभिमुखो रुद्रः प्रादुरासीन्महेश्वरः ॥ १.३१॥

Meaning: - There appeared Lord Rudra known as Maheshwara having crescent Moon on his head.

The sages prayed to Bhagawan Shiva with various hymns.

संस्तुतो भगवानीशस्त्र्यम्बको भक्तवत्सलः । समालिङ्ग्य हृषीकेशं प्राह गम्भीरया गिरा ॥ १.३६॥ किमर्थं पुण्डरीकाक्ष मुनीन्द्रा ब्रह्मवादिनः । इमं समागता देशं किं वा कार्यं मयाऽच्युत ॥ १.३७॥

Meaning: - On listening to the prayer of all yogins and devotee that Lord Isa possessing three eyes and who is dear to his devotee clasp Vishnu and further told in firm voice ‘for what purpose these yogins have gathered here, O Hrsikesha? For what reasons do you require me here, O Achyuta?

आकर्ण्य भगवद्वाक्यं देवदेवो जनार्दनः । प्राह देवो महादेवं प्रसादाभिमुखं स्थितम् ॥ १.३८॥ इमे हि मुनयो देव तापसाः क्षीणकल्पषाः । अभ्यागतानां शरणं सम्यग्दर्शनकाङ्क्षिणाम् ॥ १.३९॥ यदि प्रसन्नो भगवान् मुनीनां भावितात्मनाम् । सन्निधौ मम तज्ज्ञानं दिव्यं वक्तुमिहार्हसि ॥ १.४०॥ त्वं हि वेत्सि स्वमात्मानं न ह्यन्यो विद्यते शिव । ततस्त्वमात्मनात्मानं मुनीन्द्रेभ्यः प्रदर्शय ॥ १.४१॥

Meaning: - On hearing the words of Mahadeva, the Janardana then replied to him. O Lord, these yogis and sages are devoid of any sins and since you are the refuge of all ascetics who adores you and are willing to realise your accurate vision. In case, you are pleased with these rishis, then you kindly bestow your divine knowledge on them in my presence. O Siva, only you are well aware about yourself, there is none else who knows you better.

Note.: Sages asked about Brahman and Atman but Lord Vishnu told Bhagawan Shiva to tell about himself in his presence.

As for who else knew this knowledge.:

After giving his sacred knowledge, Bhagawan Shiva left and Lord Vishnu told the sages thus.:

Sri Ishwara Gita Chapter 11.:

नारायणोऽपि भगवांस्तापसं वेषमुत्तमम् । जग्राह योगिनः सर्वांस्त्यक्त्वा वै परमं वपुः ॥ ११.१२०॥ ज्ञानं भवद्भिरमलं प्रसादात् परमेष्ठिनः । साक्षाद्देव महेशस्य ज्ञानं संसारनाशनम् ॥ ११.१२१॥ गच्छध्वं विज्वराः सर्वे विज्ञानं परमेष्ठिनः । प्रवर्त्तयध्वं शिष्येभ्यो धार्मिकेभ्यो मुनीश्वराः ॥ ११.१२२॥

Meaning: - Bhagawaan Narayana too discarding his pArmarthik (Vishnu) form, took the form of yogi (Narayana) and told to all yogins – You all have received the spotless knowledge – which destroys bondage of the world by grace of Parmesthin (Maheshwara). Hence all of you becoming devoid of sufferings, talk this knowledge of Parmeshtin with your righteous disciples.

इदं भक्ताय शान्ताय धार्मिकायाहिताग्नये । विज्ञानमैश्वरं देयं ब्राह्मणाय विशेषतः ॥ ११.१२३॥

Meaning: - This knowledge related to Ishwara should be imparted only to calm devotees, righteous person or Agni-hotri Brahmin.

एवमुक्त्वा स विश्वात्मा योगिनां योगवित्तमः । नारायणो महायोगी जगामादर्शनं स्वयम् ॥ ११.१२४॥

Meaning: - By saying that, foremost among yogins, that Maha-yogi, viswAtma Narayan himself goes invisible.

तेऽपि देवादिदेवेशं नमस्कृत्य महेश्वरम् । नारायणं च भूतादिं स्वानि स्थानानि लेभिरे ॥ ११.१२५॥

Meaning: - All the yogins and sages present there too, prostrating to the Adi-deveshwar Maheshwar and Bhutaadi Narayan, went to their respective place.

सनत्कुमारो भगवान् संवर्त्ताय महामुनिः । दत्तवानैश्वरं ज्ञानं सोऽपि सत्यव्रताय तु ॥ ११.१२६॥ सनन्दनोऽपि योगीन्द्रः पुलहाय महर्षये । प्रददौ गौतमायाथ पुलहोऽपि प्रजापतिः ॥ ११.१२७॥ अङ्गिरा वेदविदुषे भरद्वाजाय दत्तवान् । जैगीषव्याय कपिलस्तथा पञ्चशिखाय च ॥ ११.१२८॥ पराशरोऽपि सनकात् पिता मे सर्वतत्त्वदृक् । लेभेतत्परमं ज्ञानं तस्माद् वाल्मीकिराप्तवान् ॥ ११.१२९॥ ममोवाच पुरा देवः सतीदेहभवाङ्गजः । वामदेवो महायोगी रुद्रः किल पिनाकधृक् ॥ ११.१३०॥

Meaning: - After that, this divine knowledge was imparted to Samvarta by Sanatkumara, again Samvarta impated the same to his disciple -Satyavrata. Sage Phulaha received this divine knowledge from Sanandana – the yogiswara and again Phulaha imparted the same to Gautama. Sage Bharadvaja – well versed in the knowledge of vedas, received this knowledge from Angiraj. Kapila too imparted this knowledge to Jagisvaya and Pacasikha. Sanaka gave this divine knowledge to my father Parasara. Valmiki was imparted this knoweldge by Parasara. Earlier, controller of kAla, Rudra- Vaamdeva - the great yogi emerged out of body of sati, bestowed this knowledge to me (Vyasa).

This same knowledge of Bhagawan Shiva was transferred to Arjuna by Lord Krishna even though he heard it as Sage Nara but he forgot it due to rebirth as also told in B.G. 4.5.: "The Blessed Lord said, O Arjuna, many lives of Mine have passed, and so have yours. I know them all, (but) you know not, O scorcher of enemies!!!"

नारायणोऽपि भगवान् देवकीतनयो हरिः । अर्जुनाय स्वयं साक्षात् दत्तवानिदमुत्तमम् ॥ ११.१३१॥

Meaning: - Hari – the son of Devaki who is also known as Narayan himself transferred this knowledge to Arjuna.

यदाहं लब्धवान् रुद्राद् वामदेवादनुत्तमम् । विशेषाद् गिरिशे भक्तिस्तस्मादारभ्य मेऽभवत् ॥ ११.१३२॥

Meaning: - My (Vyasa’s) devotion towards the Bhagawaan Girisha begins after I received this knowledge from Lord Vamadeva.

शरण्यं शरणं रुद्रं प्रपन्नोऽहं विशेषतः । भूतेशं गिरशं स्थाणुं देवदेवं त्रिशूलिनम् ॥ ११.१३३॥

Meaning: - I have taken the special refuge of that Lord who is supreme refuge of all refugees, Lord of beings, Girisha, sthAnu, Lord of all Lords holding trident in his hands, Rudra.

Vyasa also gave this knowledge to sages and his desciples such as Lomaharsana, Suta, Suka, Vaishampayana, etc and Lord Kurma Vishnu also gave this knowledge to various devas and sages as mentioned in the I.G. itself.

That's how Bhagawan Shiva knows it as it was Originally his knowledge only.

As for Suryadeva.:

Ishwara Gita Chapter 6.:

यो हि सर्वजगत्साक्षी कालचक्रप्रवर्त्तकः । हिरण्यगर्भो मार्त्तण्डः सोऽपि मद्देहसंभवः ॥ ६.१०॥ तस्मै दिव्यं स्वमैश्वर्यं ज्ञानयोगं सनातनम् । दत्तवानात्मजान् वेदान् कल्पादौ चतुरो द्विजाः ॥ ६.११॥

Meaning: - The Sun-God (Martand) who is also known as Hiranya-Garbha, is witnessing the world, due to him (Sun) wheel of time is moving, that Sun is emerged from Me (Lord Shiva). For the very same reason, O Sages at the beginning of every Kalpa, I bestow upon him the eternal Knowledge of four Vedas and Divine Glories of mine.

So, it is clear that it is Bhagawan Shiva only who gives gita gyan to Sun in every kalpa. This, no question of Kalpa-Bheda.

This was also confirmed by Svetaswatara Upanishad itself.:

“yadaa.atamastaanna divaa na raatriH na sannachaasachchhiva eva kevalaH | tadaxara.n tat.h saviturvareNyaM praGYaa cha tasmaat.h prasR^itaa puraaNii |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:18).

“When there is complete absence of the darkness of ignorance, then what is experienced is neither day nor night; neither existence or non-existence; only one pure Siva is there; that is indestructible; that is adorable light and god of even Savitar (Sun) also; from that (Shiva) the ancient wisdom proceeded all over the world”.

So, Bhagwad Gita is nothing but Ishwara Gita itself. Thus, taking this into account other person who knew this knowledge from the Sun were as follows.:

Sri Bhagwad Gita Chapter 4.:

I instructed this imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvān, and Vivasvān instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Ikṣvāku. This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way. But in course of time the succession was broken, and therefore the science as it is appears to be lost. That very ancient science of the relationship with the Supreme is today told by Me to you because you are My devotee as well as My friend and can therefore understand the transcendental mystery of this science.

Should also add Sanjaya and Dhitrasta to the list as they have also got this knowledge at the same time as Arjuna.

For more info you can check this and this answers of mine.

I hope this clarifies all your queries. Prd..

0

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .