In Christianity, God dies. Something similar concept is there in Norse mythology. Are there any stories in Hinduism about the death of Gods?

P.S. I am not talking about avatars.

  • 11
    what do you mean by gods die in Christianity? Jesus wasn't God. Jun 20, 2014 at 12:15
  • 1
    @VineetMenon not talking about Jesus. But their demigod dies. Will add reference later. Jun 20, 2014 at 12:16
  • 1
    There is a event where Sati, Goddess blazes herself. but She again re-incarnate as Parvati. So, I think Hindu mythology believes Gods as immortal. Coming to Avatars, they get dissolve in their main form.
    – Mr_Green
    Jun 20, 2014 at 12:30
  • @Mr_Green even humans reincarnate. Does that mean humans are immortals? No. As per Hinduism souls and Brahman are only immortal. Jun 20, 2014 at 12:32
  • 2
    Does this answer your question? What is the Life span of Hindu gods
    – YDS
    May 8, 2022 at 11:26

12 Answers 12


In hinduism , everything has cycle of life and death. Universe has a life of 100 brahma years (311 trillion 40 billion human years), Devtas' 1 day equals 1 year of humans. So yes everything has age.

But for all practical reasons, Gods are immortal. Godess Parvati (incarnation of Godess Sati) became immortal only when God Shiv told her about immortality(that's what Amarnath temple is famour for). Amrit derived from samundra manthan(churning of sea) made all Devtas immortal when they drank it. One Asura also drank amrit and he also became immortal. God Vishnu cut his head, but they are still alive as Rahu(head)/Ketu(body).

Then we have seven chiranjivis immortals.

अश्वत्थामाबलिर्व्यासोहनुमांश्च विभीषण:कृपश्चपरशुरामश्च सप्तैतेचिरंजीविन:।

Ashwathama, Bali , Kripa, Parsurama, Vibhishana , Hanuman, Vyasa. Apart from the 7 mentioned there are other like Bhushundi, Saptarishi, Sage Markandeya, Jambhavan, Markandeya, Devapi, Maru and others who are immortals.

  • 1
    You might want to add Saptharishis in the list..
    – user11
    Jun 20, 2014 at 12:51
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    @vedic Just because the gods have a sense of time does not mean they are mortal or that they age. The gods do not in fact age. Jun 20, 2014 at 13:13
  • 1
    The OP has specifically asked Do gods die?. I don't think devtas or chiranjivis or saptrishis were gods. That's why we have different terms for them.
    – DroidDev
    Jun 20, 2014 at 13:30
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    @KeshavSrinivasan Agree Gods donot have age but at the end of 100 Brahma years everything merges with higher entity Parbrahma for the next 100 Brahma years and then rebirth cycle repeats. So though Gods' donot age and they dont have age but still there is a number of 311trillion years after which nothing will exist.
    – user115
    Jun 20, 2014 at 14:09
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    From a philosophical standpoint, what can die? One which has bodily form can only die. Gods/gods do not have bodily form. Hence they cannot die.
    – Bharat
    Jun 20, 2014 at 14:58

Rama and Lakshmana catch a brief glimpse of the gods in the Aranya Kanda of the Ramayana. (Indra is in a hurry to leave because it's not the right time to reveal to Rama who he really is.) Rama explains:

And oh, manly-tiger Lakshmana, those that are there in hundreds and hundreds around Indra, those youthful ones with their ear-ornaments and swords in hands, with wide and broad chests, with club shaped arms, and clad in glimmering red garments, all are like tigers, all are unapproachable, all of them are wearing ornamental chains on their chest-place that are akin to flaring fires, and in their appearance, Soumitri, they always bear a look of twenty-five-year-olds. The age factor of gods remains constant at the age that appears for these nice-looking Tigerly-men, so they say... for gods are immortals and they will be ever young

By the way, I should add that contrary to popular belief, the fundamental reason for the immortality of the gods is not the drinking of Amrita, the nectar of immortality. The gods were already inherently immortal before, but then they lost their immortality due to a curse of Durvasa. They just needed to churn the ocean and obtain Amrita to restore what they previously had.


This question is rather unclear but the answer is:

Lord Visnu is immortal, everyone else in the material world dies eventually

Brahma is the oldest living being and lives for 100 years, which calculates out to around 311 trillion years. This is calculated as one cycle of 1,000 cycles of the 4 yugas to be equal to one day of Brahma. At the end of each day of Brahma, all planets lower than Tapoloka, including Svargaloka, where all the devas live, are completely covered by water. After Brahma awakes, he again recreates the entire creation. See Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 3 Chapters 8-11 for more information.

Here is a quotation proving that the devas are created by Brahma: The creation of the demigods is of eight varieties: (1) the demigods, (2) the forefathers, (3) the asuras, or demons, (4) the Gandharvas and Apsarās, or angels, (5) the Yakṣas and Rākṣasas, (6) the Siddhas, Cāraṇas and Vidyādharas, (7) the Bhūtas, Pretas and Piśācas, and (8) the superhuman beings, celestial singers, etc. All are created by Brahmā, the creator of the universe.

Besides that, Bhagavad Gita mentions that Krishna is the Supreme Person above all other persons in both verse 10.8 and 15.17.

BG 10.8:

I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts.

BG 15.17:

Besides these two, there is the greatest living personality, the Supreme Soul, the imperishable Lord Himself, who has entered the three worlds and is maintaining them.

More quotes from the Vedas about the fallibility of the devas and the Supremacy of Lord Visnu:

nārāyaṇād brahmā jāyate
nārāyaṇād prajāpatiḥ prajāyate
nārāyaṇād indro jāyate
nārāyaṇād aṣṭau vasavo jāyante
nārāyaṇād ekādaśa rudrā jāyanta
nārāyaṇād dvādaśādityāḥ

“From Nārāyaṇa, Brahmā is born, and from Nārāyaṇa the patriarchs are also born. From Nārāyaṇa, Indra is born, from Nārāyaṇa the eight Vasus are born, from Nārāyaṇa the eleven Rudras are born, from Nārāyaṇa the twelve Ādityas are born.”
(Narayana Upanisad)

eko vai nārāyaṇa
āsīn na brahmā neśāno
nāpo nāgni-somau neme
dyāv-āpṛthivī na nakṣatrāṇi na sūryaḥ

“In the beginning of the creation there was only the Supreme Personality Nārāyaṇa. There was no Brahmā, no Śiva, no water, no fire, no moon, no heaven and earth, no stars in the sky, no sun.” (Maha Upanisad)

  • 1
    In Hinduism, immortal does not mean eternal, as all physical bodies are foretold to become immaterial at the end of time, along with Brahma himself.Bhāgavata Purāṇa 3.32.8-10
    – user115
    Jun 20, 2014 at 17:30
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    @vedic The dictionary definition of immortal states "not capable of dying," which is appropriate to Lord Visnu. The question asked whether demigods can die and the answer is yes. Eternal in this context can refer to the jivatmas of the devas, which as souls, are eternal.
    – cheenbabes
    Jun 20, 2014 at 17:38
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    question is about Gods and not demi-Gods. Secondly, in my answer I have specifically mentioned "for all practical reason". thirdly, I fully agree that there is one eternal being but His "creating Gods" and He Himself taking avatars and we following those avatars (Krisna and others) have a reason. Talking God is like talking infinite and since nothing can be added/subtracted/multiplied/divided , it makes complete sense we stick to confines of manageable numbers aka 311trillion years (honestly thats also HUGE).I believe my answer catches the essence of question completely.
    – user115
    Jun 20, 2014 at 17:50
  • 1
    @vedic which Gods are you referring to then? There is only one Supreme God, so what mortal "Gods" are you talking about then?
    – cheenbabes
    Jun 20, 2014 at 17:52
  • 3
    You should qualify your answer as being limited to the vaishnava viewpoint. Siva is also immortal and eternal
    – user1195
    Feb 24, 2015 at 13:21

Yes Gods die also. At the end everything has to leave mortal coil.

NOTE- die in the sense that physical form ceases to be. Atma can never die. Like even human beings die, not their Atma.

Devi Bhagawatam, Book 4, Chapter 13
शर्वो ब्रह्मा हरिश्चेति इन्द्राद्या ये सुरास्तथा ॥ २७ ॥
मुनयश्च विनिर्माणैः स्वायुषो विचरन्ति हि ।

निशावसाने सञ्जाते जगत्स्थावरजङ्गमम् ॥ २८ ॥
म्रियते नात्र सन्देहो नृप किञ्चित्कदापि च ।
स्वायुषोऽन्ते पद्मजाद्याः क्षयमृच्छन्ति पार्थिव ॥ २९ ॥
प्रभवन्ति पुनर्विष्णुहरशक्रादयः सुराः ।

तस्मात्कामादिकान्भावान्देहवान्प्रतिपद्यते ॥ ३० ॥

Vyasa tells Janamejaya-
O King! Shiva, Brahma, Narayana, Indra and other Gods, as well as the Munis and others live up to their ordained age of life. This moving and unmoving Universe then dissolves at time of Pralaya and comes into existence again, there is no doubt here, O Lord of Men. O Ruler of Earth! when the ordained age ends, then Brahma and others die, and again, Vishnu, Shiva, Indra and other all Devas take birth again. So, every embodied being(a being having a body) therefore gets all the feelings of lust, anger, avarice et cetera.

Whoever takes up body is sure to end, be it Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, or Devi. At the end everything ends even Shiva Vishnu Brahma merge in only one ParaBrahma.

NOTE- taken from user9392's answer who was me itself.

  • 1
    If that is the case, then why did Yudhisthira never die? He just entered heaven alive. Bhishma also just goes to Vasu Loka after death. Also, there are the chiranjivis
    – user20919
    Feb 3, 2021 at 17:38

Forms of Brahman of course are immortal. All the rest and that includes Devas like Indra die.

The gods, without exception, (when their merits cease), have to take birth as mortal creatures also (when they acquire sufficient merit), succeed in attaining to the status of gods. Mahabharata Santi Parva Section CCLIX


There are four Vedic statements referred to in various articles in the web and here it is:

  1. Tat Tvam Asi means(That Thou Art) from Samaveda- Chandogya Upanishad
  2. Aham Brahmasmi means(I am Brahman). From Yajurveda- The Brhadaranyakopanisad
  3. Ayam Atma Brahman means (This Self is Brahman). From Atharva Veda -Mandukyopanisad
  4. Pragnanam Brahman means (Brahman is Consciousness). From Rgveda- Aitareyopanisad

In all these statements, the difference between you as a creation and creator is very thin. This goes back to the part of the WHOLE concept.

You as an entity in the universe is the same as a cell in your body.

Interestingly, you can reapply this logic everywhere at any scale. So, you can say,


A QUARK is a PART, and the ATOM is the WHOLE.

An ATOM is a PART, and the CELL is the WHOLE.

CELL being a PART and HUMAN as the WHOLE.

HUMAN being a PART, and the UNIVERSE as the WHOLE.


As you can see, this is a self symmetrical scale model. And there is a branch of math which deals with this - CHAOS THEORY & FRACTALS.

When you create a fractal, you notice that the fractal continues to grow till infinity.

If I assume that the source of the fractal, stopped, the fractal would implode, and shutdown. A very similar way, if God were to die, all these subsequent progressions of life and material which has grown in such tremendous scale from big to tiny, will also cease to exist.

If God dies ( the fractal equation, that is spawning the universe), the universe would cease almost instantly.

So, here is my summary: I don't think there is a scenario where God will die, and we will live to see it. But, theoretically God can die, as per similar Fractal science, and its close resemblance to the statements in Upanishads.

Please note here, that due to a lack of wisdom, we have to allude to the source of the universe to be an entity called God. God may be at the end of the day, a simple fractal equation. It is very similar to how ice crystals are formed. Ice crystals form when water freezes around one tiny dust particle. And then they grow into billions of varieties of ice crystals. Universe was formed in the same way. Around one dust particle.

But whatever we explain, we simply cannot explain how the dust particle came in the first place.

That's why you can see, why the Upanishads are so tough to understand. The statements written in them are very small, but extremely difficult to comprehend, and you can see umpteen interpretations of the same.


Srimad Bhagavatam (15-19):

apāḿ rasam atho tejas
tā līyante 'tha nīrasāḥ
grasate tejaso rūpaḿ
vāyus tad-rahitaḿ tadā
līyate cānile tejo
vāyoḥ khaḿ grasate guṇam
sa vai viśati khaḿ rājaḿs
tataś ca nabhaso guṇam
śabdaḿ grasati bhūtādir
nabhas tam anu līyate
taijasaś cendriyāṇy ańga
devān vaikāriko guṇaiḥ
mahān grasaty ahańkāraḿ
guṇāḥ sattvādayaś ca tam
grasate 'vyākṛtaḿ rājan
guṇān kālena coditam
na tasya kālāvayavaiḥ
pariṇāmādayo guṇāḥ
anādy anantam avyaktaḿ
nityaḿ kāraṇam avyayam

The element fire then seizes the taste from the element water, which, deprived of its unique quality, taste, merges into fire. Air seizes the form inherent in fire, and then fire, deprived of form, merges into air. The element ether seizes the quality of air, namely touch, and that air enters into ether. Then, O King, false ego in ignorance seizes sound, the quality of ether, after which ether merges into false ego.

False ego in the mode of passion takes hold of the senses, and false ego in the mode of goodness absorbs the demigods.

Then the total mahat-tattva seizes false ego along with its various functions, and that mahat is seized by the three basic modes of nature - goodness, passion and ignorance. My dear King Parikshit, these modes are further overtaken by the original unmanifest form of nature, impelled by time. That unmanifest nature is not subject to the six kinds of transformation caused by the influence of time. Rather, it has no beginning and no end. It is the unmanifest, eternal and infallible cause of creation.

Demigods here refer to gods other than Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and other liberated souls, Vidhyadharas, Narada, saints, sages, Adi Shakti - Durga and the 4 Kumaras - Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana and Sanatkumara Demigods include Surya, Chandra, Varuna, Indra, Mitra, Marut, Vayu, Ashvins, Shani, Budha, Brihaspati, Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, etc etc.

The 4 eternal, exalted and lovable Kumaras

Srimad Bhagavatam (20-21):

na yatra vāco na mano na sattvaṁ
tamo rajo vā mahad-ādayo ’mī
na prāṇa-buddhīndriya-devatā vā
na sanniveśaḥ khalu loka-kalpaḥ

na svapna-jāgran na ca tat suṣuptaṁ
na khaṁ jalaṁ bhūr anilo ’gnir arkaḥ
saṁsupta-vac chūnya-vad apratarkyaṁ
tan mūla-bhūtaṁ padam āmananti

In the unmanifest stage of material nature, called pradhāna, there is no expression of words, no mind and no manifestation of the subtle elements beginning from the mahat, nor are there the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. There is no life air or intelligence, nor any senses or demigods. There is no definite arrangement of planetary systems, nor are there present the different stages of consciousness — sleep, wakefulness and deep sleep. There is no ether, water, earth, air, fire or sun. The situation is just like that of complete sleep, or of voidness. Indeed, it is indescribable. Authorities in spiritual science explain, however, that since pradhāna is the original substance, it is the actual basis of material creation.

This is the annihilation called prākṛtika, during which the energies belonging to the Supreme Person and His unmanifest material nature, disassembled by the force of time, are deprived of their potencies and merge together totally.It is the Absolute Truth alone who manifests in the forms of intelligence, the senses and the objects of sense perception, and who is their ultimate basis. Whatever has a beginning and an end is insubstantial because of being an object perceived by limited senses and because of being non-different from its own cause.

The other Gods who don't get destroyed are the Gods which are prevalent in every timelines of the universal manifestation. Narada, the 4 Kumaras, Vidyadharas, Durga, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva etc., will be there in every universal manifestation. Gods like Varuna, Mitra, Indra, Vayu may have a different name and another conscious-tattva to rule the position. But liberated souls will forever stay in the body of Vishnu, who is the cause of all, and never dies nor dissolves into anything, as it is He who is the Absolute Reality.


The Daksha Yagna is described in many Puranas. Siva gets insulted by Daksha (in some versions Daksha's daughter (Siva's wife) immolates herself) and either he or his manifestation Veerabhadra destroys the sacrifice. The sacrifice is under the protection of Vishnu. There are many versions of how Vishnu carried out his obligation to protect the sacrifice and in the Linga Purana version Vishnu is beheaded. He is of course restored afterwards.

Vishnu also dies (this is the basis of Siva's name "Vishnukandharapaatana:") in the story of hayagriva per devi bhagavatam:


He's of course restored back to life by Devi.

  • 4
    Yes, the story of Daksha yagna is inconsistent in the Puranas. You should cite your sources for the answers. Sources are mandatory on the site. Dec 2, 2017 at 3:19

Yes. Atleast some of the gids (devas) lose their physical existence. Note that jivatman persists.

This is how the Vayu Purāṇa describes the end of "lower-level" beings (beneath Satyaloka), as enacted by god Brahma, at the end of a Kalpa.

Vayu Purāṇa 24.2-7

एतत्सहस्रपर्यन्तमहर्यद्ब्रह्मणः स्मृतम् । यामाद्यास्तु गणाः सप्त रोमवन्तश्चतुर्द्दश ॥ २४.२ ॥ सशरीराः श्रयन्ते स्म जनलोकं सहानुगाः । एवं देवेष्वतीतेषु महर्ल्लोकाज्जनं तपः ॥ २४.३ ॥

  • 2-3. A thousand cycles of these four yugas constitute a day of god Brahma. The seven Ganas (groups of gods) like Yama and others and the fourteen Romavat groups in their physical bodies resort to Janaloka along with their followers. In this way, Devas go from Maharloka to Janaloka and Tapoloka.

मन्वन्तरेष्वतीतेषु देवाः सर्वे महौजसः । ततस्तेषु गतेषूर्द्ध्वं सायुज्यं कल्पवासिनाम् ॥ २४.४ ॥

  1. When many Manvantaras pass off, the mighty devas of the Kalpa go up and attain Sayujya.1

Footnote 1:

Here: Sayujya must be interpreted as staying near or with the denizens of the upper regions, and doesn't imply the attainment of Sayujya-Moksha. This interpretation is based on Hindi Translation by Rampratap Tripathi Shastri.

Alternatively, the Hindu scriptures website gives the following English translation, which more or less, matches with the Hindi translation -

- The Manvantaras having gone by, the devas all of great prowess; then all of them having gone overhead, the concomitance of the denizens of the aeons (came about)

समेत्य देवैस्ते देवाः प्राप्ते सङ्कालने तदा । महर्लोकं परित्यज्य गणास्ते वै चतुर्द्दश ॥ २४.५ ॥ भूतदिष्ववशिष्टेषु स्थावरान्तेषु वै तदा । शून्येषु तेषु लोकेषु महान्तेषु भुवादिषु । देवेष्वथ गतेषूर्द्ध्वं कल्पवासिषु वै जनम् ॥ २४.६ ॥ तत्संहत्या ततो ब्रह्मा देवर्षिगणदानवान् । संस्थापयति वै सर्व्वान् दाहवृष्‌ट्या युगक्षये ॥ २४.७ ॥

  • 5-7. When the time of withdrawal (dissolution) arrives, the fourteen Ganas leave Maharloka. Those gods in combination with these (quit the Maharloka), when the elements and immobiles alone are left behind, when all the regions from the Bhuar-laka to Svar-laka become void; when Devas whose duration of tenure is a Kalpa go upto Janaloka, god Brahma then collects (all) the groups of Devas, sages and Danavas and destroys them all through fire and showers when the Yuga comes to an end.

English Translation by G.V. Tagare

Therefore, as per the Vayu Purāṇa, god Brahmâ personally destroys the lower elemental gods and other celestial beings and, other devas & sages, through fire.

Also Relevant answer maybe found at - Brahma Vishnu and Shiva are under the cycle of Birth and Death?

  • Translation here seems confusing. Sayujya in 2nd verse can be interpreted as Moksha but it is not so. You can check alternate translation that is present on Hinduscriptures site.
    – The Destroyer
    May 4, 2022 at 17:02
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    Yes, it doesn't means Moksha, which cannot be given by people of Tapaloka, Majarloka etc. It means staying near, or together with the people of upper regions. I have clarified that in my answer now, from two different sources, which point to the same fact. i.e., in the above verses "Sayujya" = staying near, or together, not Moksha. Hope the readers will not be confused further! :)
    – Vivikta
    May 5, 2022 at 1:31

As per certain texts, Yes. Even the Trimurtis are said to have origination and disappearance in Every Kalpa.

Parashara Smriti I.20 states Brahma , Vishnu and Maheshvara all undergo Utpatti and Kshaya in every kalpa.

enter image description here enter image description here

The Above smriti is commented upon by Madhva Vidyaranya and the same is available as a voluminous work by the name of 'Parashara Maadhaveeya'. In the commentary of the above verse, he has further substantiated the idea of the resolving, laya,Kshaya of the Trimurtis by citing From the Suta samhita of the Skanda purana.

enter image description here

Now The question may arise... What about all the scriptural references which have declared various Gods to be immortal? To Answer the above question, it can be said that the 'immortality' stated theirin is only relative and not absolute. Just like how from the perspective of a short-lived man , the one who has lived for a hundred years seems to have lived for an eternity.

Corroborating the above interpretation from the Matsya Purana-

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~ Matsya Purana Chapter 154


No GOD of any religion died. Only their messengers died. Human form of Avatar purusha dissapeared after doing good to devoted seekers.

Till solar cells depicted electricty generated by mercury animal blood product panels, there were mispropaganda that humans need to feed on many beings.

Humans have blood that can be energised by a GOD called SUN far distant from Earth.

We cant expect pure/noble God to be with us who commit sins/ if not do not stop others committing sins

To bring Godly attributes near us we have to be Hindu Sanaatani.


Except Bhagawan Shiva everyone including Brahma, Vishnu, KaalAgniRudra, Indra, etc, all gets Parama Gati when their time comes.

Rudra is truly one; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time. (Svet. Up. 3.2/Atharva sSiras Upanishad 5.2).

Rudra is indeed the only one. There is none beside him who can make him a second. (Taittriya Samhita, 1st Khanda, 8th Praphataka).

When there is complete absence of the darkness of ignorance, then what is experienced is neither day nor night; neither existence or non-existence; only one pure Siva is there; that is indestructible; that is adorable light and god of even Savitar (Sun) also; from that (Shiva) the ancient wisdom proceeded all over the world” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 4:18).

For the sake of this world, this deathless primeval being, catches hold of this world which is created by Prajapathi and which is minute and peaceful, without touching it and attracts its shape of things by shape, peacefulness by peace, minuteness by minuteness and airy nature by its airy nature and swallows it. Salutations and salutations to that great swallower. ( 3-4 Atharva siras Upanishad ).

This god is the one who pervades in all directions. He is the one who came earlier than every thing. He is the one who is in the womb. He is the one who is in all the creatures which have come out till now and all those who are going to be created in future. He is also the one who sees the inside but the one who has a face which looks outside. (5.1 Atharva siras upanishad ).

He converts fire, air, water, earth, ether and everything that exists here in to ash. He who sees this and mentally realizes it and observes the “penance to Pasupathi (Lord of all beings)” and who coats ash all over his body with this ash attains the state of Brahman. By worshipping “Pasupathi (lord of all beings)” like this, the ties of bondage of all beings get cut and they attain salvation. ( 5.4 Atharva siras ).

Meditating on the highest Lord, allied to Uma, powerful, three-eyed, blue-necked, and tranquil, the holy man reaches Him who is the source of all, the witness of all and is beyond darkness (i.e. Avidya). (7 kaivalya upanishad).

He alone is all that was, and all that will be, the Eternal; knowing Him, one transcends death; there is no other way to freedom. Seeing the Atman in all beings, and all beings in the Atman, one attains the highest Brahman – not by any other means (9-10 kaivalya upanishad).

Prakriti is perishable. Hara, the Lord, is immortal and imperishable. The non−dual Supreme Self rules both prakriti and the individual soul. Through constant meditation on Him, by union with Him, by the knowledge of identity with Him, one attains, in the end, cessation of the illusion of phenomena. (Shwetashwatara Upanishad 1.10).

"Salutations to Lord Hara who ends up his own form Hari, who's adored by all devas, who's the lord of universe." (Yajur Veda, Taittiriya Aranyaka, 10.49.1).

All those devas who are all under stupor by the illusion of Maheswara would not understand properly that Mahadeva who is the teacher of the universe, is the cause of all causes. His shape does not appear before the eye. This world is shining because of that Parathpara Purusha in whom the world exists. It merges in him. That Ishana aspect is the Para Brahman which is the upper boundary of peace. The knowledge that the Para Brhaman is oneself and the rise of Sathyo Jatam (birth of truth) is Para Brahman (6 pancha brahmaopanishad ).”

Oh! Faithful Consort of Siva (Parvati), At the time of great dissolution, Brahma, Visnu, Yama, Kubera, Indra and other gods cease to exit. But Your Consort Siva alone enjoys with You even during the great dissolution. (Soundaryalahari | 26).

Shailraj! Hear from me the meaning of this mysterious speech and consider carefully what I have said. Himachal, what I have said that the husband of this goddess has not been born, it means that Mahadev, who is present in all the three periods of time, past, future and present, the giver of shelter to the living beings, the imperishable, the regulator, the benefactor and the Supreme God, is unborn. That is, he is eternal, he do not take birth. O Mountain King! Brahma, Vishnu, Indra, Muni etc. suffer from birth, death and old age. All these are just toys of that God. By his wish, Brahma, the lord of Tribhuvana, has appeared and Vishnu is born in different types of castes in every era, assuming a huge body. Mountain King! You also believe in Vishnu who was born in every era under the shelter of Maya. Even after being born in a permanent state, the soul is not destroyed when the body dies. Only the body of a creature who is born in this world and dies is destroyed, the soul is not said to be destroyed. From Brahma till the end of the world, the creatures born in it remain dependent on the sufferings of birth and death, but Mahadev is as immovable as the Sthanu. He is free from old age and is the creator of everyone, but himself is not created from anyone. That innocent Jagdishwar Shankar will be the husband of this girl. (176 - 184 Matsya puran chapter - 154).

6-8. Thereupon, Sankara, the Lord of Devas, laughed and spoke these words: "This garland of mine that shines with many crores of skulls has been made out of skulls of thousands of Nārāyaṇas and ten thousand Brahmas. Therefore, it is devoid of beginning and end. A new Viṣṇu is born in every Kalpa. So also a new Brahmā. In every Kalpa, Viṣņu and Prajapati are created by me. (Skanda Purana | Prabhasa Khanda | 1.9.6-8).

In this way, in innumerable Kalpas, innumerable Brahmas and innumerable Vishnus are born, but there is only one Lord Maheshwara. (Linga Purana | Purva Bhaga | 4 | 54 - 55).

21-24. "I stay on the surface of the earth in the form of Aruṇācala. Merely by visiting it, your Tamas will be destroyed. To a previous Vişņu a boon had been granted by me for- merly. It was at that time itself that this fiery Linga named Aruṇācala (came into being). For the purpose of protecting the worlds this effulgent form has become subdued and quiescent, since it is unmanifest and fiery as well as it has unlimited wealth of good qualities. Since it is internally fiery in form, the waters of the rivers, streams and those shed by clouds are seen merging with it.

(Skand Puran - Maheshwar khaṅda, 1st section of Arunachala mahatmyam, 6th chapter 24 th verse).

67-71. Then Śiva said to his sons [Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesha (Rudra)]: “Due to the (particles of) dust the power of doing rites and knowledge also perish. Brahma is seen to have a short life. He lives (longer) due to hymns. I was formerly decorated with the rows (garlands) of ‘Brahmā’s eggs’. Having rested upon the Rajas quality, you are not recognising me. Viṣṇu has more power than Brahma, and has also longer life than Brahmā in sustaining the row of ‘Brahmā’s eggs’. The life of Viṣṇu is said to be of the measure of four inhalings of Maheśa and me. May that Viṣṇu support you due to his having more of the Sattva (quality) than Brahmā (has). He knows me the entire time, and would not forget me. (Padma Purana, Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa, Chapter 108).

2-6a. The Odd-eyed Śiva is the foremost among the gods. The trident-bearing Śiva is brilliant. Lord Rudra the Kālātman is Kapardin and Nīlalohita. When the end of the yuga arrives he becomes infuriated and annihilates this universe including Brahmā, Viṣṇu and the fire-god. He makes the worlds shrink. Brahmā and Viṣṇu are under his control. They make obeisance to him out of fright. He is the lord who formerly created Brahmā and Viṣṇu from his limbs. He alone is the cause of acquisition and retention. He is the primordial and ancient god. (Shiva Purana

  1. He (KaalAgniRudra) is brilliant holding the skulls of asura Jalandhara, Brahmā, and Indra, his tawny hair, moustache and beard are drenched in the surging waves of Gangā. (Shiva Purana

Mahadev killed all the incarnations of Lord Vishnu. (Shankar Samhita, Virmahendra Khanda, 2.41-42).

  1. Let there be adoration to that Rudra, who, the ancient Lord, killed the terrible and troublesome incarnations of Vishnu, namely, Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, and Vamana; who troubled Suresha (Indra) by making him tired and who reduced Manmata (Kama) and Yama into ashes. (Sharabha Upanishad).

“In this, both Balarama and Kesava (Krishna) after causing the extermination of their race, their hour having come, themselves did not rise superior to the sway of all-destroying Kala”. (MBH 1:2:350).

  1. Greater than the great is Brahma, greater still than that great one is Hari, even greater than this one is Isha. May my mind do Sankalpa of Auspicious Lord Shiva. (SSS/RV-Khila).

Further References for studying.:

  1. As per Shaiva theology are new Vishnu and Brahmâ are born in every Kalpa?

  2. What is the Life span of the Hindu Gods.?

  3. https://hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/54192/20968

  4. https://hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/54204/20968

  5. https://hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/53644/20968

I hope this clarifies all your queries. Prd..

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