We know that naivedyam is an important smarta/pauranik ritual usually done before or after nirAjanam/Arati.
Is this ritual also indicated in the Vedic rites? Like how it is done in the 16 upachAra poojA.
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Yes. It is called Nivid (निविद्). In fact, the smarta naivedyam (नैवेद्यम्) is derived/variation from shrauta nivid. It means to declare or inform the deity about the offering by naming the specified deity or deities.
It consists of fixed short phrases that are uttered at various times during the yajna when offering havis and soma. For example,
प्रेदं ब्रह्म प्रेदं क्षत्रम्
It is referred to in various Rig Veda mantras. For example, RV 1.89.3:
तान् पूर्वया निविदा हूमहे वयं भगं मित्रमदितिं दक्षमस्रिधम् । अर्यमणं वरुणं सोममश्विना सरस्वती नः सुभगा मयस्करत् ॥
We offer to them with the ancient Nivid, to Bhaga, Mitra, Aditi, Daksha, Aryaman, Varuna, Soma, Ashvins and Sarasvati. May they bring us welfare.
स पूर्वया निविदा कव्यतायोरिमाः प्रजा अजनयन्मनूनाम्
He (Agni) created human beings by the specific words of the ancient Nivid uttered by Manu.
तामनु त्वा निविदं जोहवीमि विद्यामेषं वृजनं जीरदानुम्
I offer to you (Indra) that very Nivid again, may we obtain food, energy and long life.
जुषेथां यज्ञं बोधतं हवस्य मे सत्तो होता निविदः पूर्व्या अनु
(Mitra & Varuna,) Please enjoy my yajna, know of my offerings following the ancient Nivids.
किमु ष्विदस्मै निविदो भनन्त ...
Why do they utter these Nivids (such as मरुत्स्तोत्रो मरुद्गणः) for him (Indra)? ...
वि यद्वाचं कीस्तासो भरन्ते शंसन्ति के चिन्निविदो मनानाः
While the udgAtR priests sing, other priests (i.e. hotR's) chant the Nivids to invite the deities.
Aitareya Brahmana 11.9 has some details regarding Nivid.
तं वित्त्वा निविद्भिर्न्यवेदयन् यद् वित्त्वा निविद्भिर्न्यवेदयन् तन्निविदां निवित्त्वम् ।
Having known the yajna, they informed (nivedana) the deities through the Nivid. This is the meaning of "Nivid".
Aitareya Brahmana 11.10 has more details:
गर्भा वा एत उक्थानां यन्निविदस्तद् यत् पुरस्तादुक्थानां प्रातःसवने धीयन्ते तस्मात्पराञ्चो गर्भा धीयन्ते पराञ्चः सम्भवन्ति ।
The Nivids are as though the womb (i.e. origin) of the Uktha chants. As the Nivids are placed in front of the Ukthas for the prAtah savana (morning extraction of soma), hence when creatures are born, they come out head first.
यन्मध्यतो मध्यन्दिने धीयन्ते तस्मान्मध्ये गर्भाः धृताः ।
As the Nivids are placed in the middle of the Ukthas for the madhyandina savana (mid-day extraction of soma), hence the embryos are held in the middle of the mother's body.
यदन्ततस्तृतीयसवने धीयन्ते तस्माद् अमुतोऽर्वाञ्चो गर्भा प्रजायन्ते, प्रजात्यै ।
As the Nivids are placed at the end of the Ukthas for the third savana (evening extraction of soma), hence the babies are born from the "end" of the bodies.
पेशा वा एत उक्थानां यन्निवदः तद्यत्पुरस्तादुक्थानां प्रातःसवने धीयन्ते, यथैव प्रवयणतः पेशः कुर्यात्तादृक्तत् यन्मध्यतो मध्यन्दिने धीयन्ते यथैव मध्यतः पेशः कुर्यात्तादृक्तत् यदन्ततस्तृतीयसवने धीयन्ते यथैवाव प्रज्जनतः पेशः कुर्यात्तादृक्तत् ।
The Nivids are like embroidered decorations for the Uktha recitations. When the Nivids are placed in front of the Ukthas in the prAtahsavana, it is like when weavers put a border design at the beginning of weaving a dress. When the Nivids are placed in the middle of the Ukthas in the mid-day savana, it is like when the weavers create a design in the middle of the dress. When the Nivids are placed at the end of the Ukthas in the evening savana, it is like when the weaver finishes the garment with another border design.
And so on... there is much more about Nivids in the Aitareya Brahmana. I'm sure other Brahmana literature also has a lot to say, as Nivids are critical parts of a yajna.
Naivedya (नैवेद्य) is One of the five preliminary oblations (upacāra) to be offered during the worship
It must have evolved from निवेदिन् - offering.
The 16 types of services or upachAras are Puranic.
The sixteen types of service are
“āsanaṃ svāgataṃ pādyamarghyamācamanīyakam | madhuparkācamanasnānaṃ vasanābharaṇāni ca | gandhapuṣpe dhūpadīpau naivedyaṃ vandanaṃ tathā”
invocation (Āvāhana); offering the seat (Āsana); water offering (Arghya); washing of the feet (Pādya); water for rinsing the mouth as a mystical rite (Ācamana); oil bath (Abhyaṅga snāna); offering of cloth (Vastra); Scents (Gandha); flowers (Puṣpa); incense (Dhūpa); lamps (Dīpa); food offering (Nivedana); waving of lights (Nīrājana); betel leaves (Tāmbūla); obeisance (Namaskāra); and mystical discharge and conclusion (Visarjana).
In Rig Veda humans used to offer to Gods through Yagnas. Now, Yagna can be mind related dhyAna or meditation in esoteric sense or physical Yagna as described in Yajur Veda.
Rig Veda II.1.13 says as follows:
त्वामग्न आदित्यास आस्यं त्वां जिह्वां शुचयश्चक्रिरे कवे | त्वां रातिषाचो अध्वरेषु सश्चिरे त्वे देवा हविरदन्त्याहुतम् ||
You, Agni, did theĀdityas make their mouth; you did the pure ones make their tongue, o poet. You do the Gift-Escorts escort in the ceremonies; in you do the gods eat the poured oblation.
If we view this Yagna as mind related dhyAna, then we will be offering our mind for getting SELF REALISATION.
If we view this Yagna as Physical, then Ghee (butter) should be regarded as the material used in oblation here.
Rig Veda mentions about a few services or upachAras, but all 16 services or upachAras may not be seen therein.
Rig veda V.5.8-9 say as follows:
Iḍā, Sarasvatī, and Mahī, the three goddesses who are joy itself— let them, unfailing, sit upon the ritual grass.
Tvaṣṭar, come here as the kind one, far-ranging in the prosperity (you bring), and in your own person help us at every sacrifice.
If we view them as physical, then Yes, āsanaṃ (offering the seat), svāgataṃ (invocation) were mentioned in the Rig Veda, apart from Nivedana( oblation) .
In Sandhyavandana, water oblation is accepted and this was followed by Sri Rama in Ramayana.
तस्यर्षेः परमोदारं वचः श्रुत्वा नरोत्तमौ | स्नात्वा कृतोदकौ वीरौ जेपतुः परमं जपम् || १-२३-३
On hearing the benign words of the sage those valorous and best ones among men got up, bathed, and on offering water oblation they meditated upon the supreme hymn.
Please understand that Vedas do not occur as standalone texts/compilations in the tradition of any shakha/branch. Each branch has its own individual (read:non-dividable) corpus of Samhita, Brahmana, Aaranyakam and Upnishad. These are loosely classified into Gyaan Kand and Karma Kanda. Merely because modern publishers are printing standalone text of a certain Veda, it cannot imply that the practices, traditions and instructions as contained in the allied organs and/or parts comprising of its corpus (supra) may deemed to be separate from such Veda.
In light of this doctrine, yes, Naivedyam ritual and Shodashopchara Poojanam is duly mentioned in the corpus of Vedas.