1) Vaiśeṣika epistemology considered only "pratyakṣa" (perception) and "anumāna" (inference) as reliable means of valid knowledge


2) Vaiśeṣika school and Buddhism both consider their respective scriptures as indisputable and valid means to knowledge, the difference being that the scriptures held to be a valid and reliable source by Vaiśeṣikas were the Vedas. reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaisheshika

Now my question is that when they do not consider Shabda as pramana, then how Vaisheshika considers Veda as valid and reliable source of knowledge?

  • Vedas are words of Divine. I think the answer is given in last sutras of Vaisheshika darshana . Mar 6 '18 at 9:24
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    @SwiftPushkar If it is considers them words of Divine, then its epistemology should be same as "Nyaya darshan" which holds the above two and shabda (and upamana ) too see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyaya#%C5%9Aabda_aka_Word,_Testimony
    – zaxebo1
    Mar 6 '18 at 9:28
  • Also those seers were different than general beings , because of their "Tapas" , and that is why their words can be considered as valid source. They were TriKal Darshi rishi. They were knowing past and present. Etc. Mar 6 '18 at 9:38

For the topic of Dharma the Vaisheshika Sutras are considering word of vedas as reliable source of knowledge. It's said in the below sutra that the Ishwara created this universe through the Dharma of Dravyas (knowledge of elements) . And the information how Ishwara created this universe through the Dravyas (elements) is found in the Vedas. So on this basis of this knowledge of (elements) i.e how ishwara created the universe through Dravya Padartha from vedas ,the Words of vedas are considered as Valid Source of knowledge according to Vaisheshika Philosophy. Vaisheshika accepts that the vedas as word of God.

Its also said in the sutra that Veda-Bhagvan i.e. Ishwara in the form of vedas ,know each and everything of this universe. On the account of description found in the vedas about the creation of universe , the vedas are considered as Valid source in all subjects. The Real nature of Dharma is only described in Vedas. the fruitfulness of performing of Yajnas , sacrifices are also observed , which is described in the vedas. i.e result of performing Yajnas.

Vaisheshika Darshana Says that the seers of Vedas i.e. the Rishis were highest sadhakas , they were Tri-kal Darshi's , they were very well aware of Past and Present. Because they were expressing their opinions by through research , that is why the mantras heard by them is Swa-Pramana. Because they were doing austerities. And Considering these qualities of the Seers of Vedas and these seers heard the Mantras of vedas i.e. divine words ,their words are to be considered as Pramana or valid source of knowledge. Its the divine words heard by seers and because of the the qualification of those seers also they are considered as valid Pramana. So vaisheshika Sutras Consider words of vedas as reliable source of knowledge or the Shabda Pramana because of Rishi's. Because the vedas always speak about truth . And those seers always thoughr about welfare of other beings the divine words heard by them is considered by vaisheshika as Shabda Pramana

.( Here the word Dharma means the knowledge of Padarthas or elements).

This is explained in Vaisheshika Sutras Chapter 1- Anuvaka 1 - Sutra 3.

तद्वचनादान्मायस्य प्रामाण्यम् ||3||

The authoritativeness of veda (arises from its) being the Word of God [ or being an exposition of dharma]

Here we can read the sutra in Hindi

The same can be found in the last sutra of vaisheshika Darshana. Vaisheshika SutrasChapter 10 - Anuvaka 2 - Sutra 10

तद्वचनादान्मायस्य प्रामाण्यमिति ||

So on the basis of all these points Vaisheshika is accepting the words of vedas as Valid source of Knowledge.

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  • Peerless Effort; nicely written and explained.
    – Pandya
    Mar 7 '18 at 0:56
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    all the rest of vedic philisophies(sankhya,yoga,nayaya,mimansa, vedanta) accept Shabda as pramana. see hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/19727/…. Now, when Vaisheshika take Vedas as Valid source of Knowledge/Pramana, then why do they do not take accept it as pramana in their epistemology ; whereas all the vedic philisophies accept Shabda as pramana ?
    – zaxebo1
    Mar 7 '18 at 1:40
  • @Pandya Yes very Thanks , I will update the answer and will provide some more explanation later on . Mar 7 '18 at 4:47
  • Nicely explained.
    – The Destroyer
    Mar 7 '18 at 6:40
  • @zaxebo1 This comment by keshav in other thread has answer to your question. hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/19727/… Vedas are not INDEPENDENT pramana in vaisheshika because their authoritiveness is dependent on anumana. Actually whole comment thread is good to understand difference between concepts of dependent and independent pramana.
    – Aks
    Mar 7 '18 at 21:38

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