Appayya Dikshitar was a sixteenth century Shaivite who believed simultaneously in Advaita Vedanta and the Saiva Siddhanta school. His works mainly praise Shiva as a result. I want to know whether he believed in the concept of Hari-Hara abheda? Does any of his works indicate Sriman Narayana as the supreme Brahman?

1 Answer 1


Yes, Appayya Dikshitar apparently did believe in Hari-Hara abheda.

Quoting from pages 66-67 of "Sri Appayya Dikshitar" by Dr.N.Ramesan:

Here is a verse of Sri Appayya Dikshitar truly instructive, informative and inspiring:

"viShNurvA shankaro vA shruti-shikhara-girAmastu tAtparya-bhUmiH na-asmAkam tatrva vAdaH prasarati kimapi spaShTam-advaita-bhAjAm | kintu-Isha-dveSha-gADhAnala-kalita-hRRidAm durmatInAm duruktIH bhanktum yatno mama-ayam nahi bhavatu tato viShNu-vidveSha-shankAm ||"

The meaning of the above beautiful verse is:

'I have not the slightest objection, to anyone coming to any conclusion, that the spirit of the Vedas and the Vedantas, declare either Vishnu or Shiva as the First God. I am a follower of the Advaita doctrine. I have no difference between Shiva and VishNu. But if in order to establish Vishnu as the main God, if somebody starts abusing Shiva or hates him, I cannot bear it. There are as many proofs or pramanas in the Vedas, Vedantas, Puranas and Agamas to establish that Shiva is a mighty God, as there are to prove that Vishnu is a powerful one. However, I am propagating my religion and indulging in debate and disputation, only to persuade everyone not to hate Shiva. Let no one have the slightest doubt that I either hate or wish to denigrate Lord Vishnu simply because I praise the grace and greatness of Lord Shiva.'

The sublime devotion of Dikshita to Lord Vishnu is fully seen from his great work 'Varadaraja stava' where he has sung in ecstatic poetry about Lord Varadaraja of Kanchipuram. Vaishnavas declare that Vishnu is the supreme being and that Shiva has a lower status, being a mere jiva. Sri Dikshita however proves in his 'Ratna-traya- parIkShA' that Shiva, Vishnu, Ambika, all the three are the same, viz., the supreme reality, and proves it with the pramanas taken from the puranas, vedas and agamas.

You must log in to answer this question.