There are nine types of gems, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara, which is a 13th-century Sanskrit literary work related to Medical Alchemy, or Rasaśāstra (Rasa literature).
- Mukta (Pearl)
- Tārkṣya (Emerald)
- Pusparaga (Topaz)
- Vajra (Diamond)
- Nila or Nīlamaṇi (Sapphire)
- Gomeda (Hessonite)
- Vaidurya(Cat’s eye)
The Ratnas of superior quality and possessing better physical characteristics may only prove to give all types of siddhis (success). And only such ratnas (gemstones) should be used for dana (offering purpose), Rasayana (therapeutic purpose), dharana bearing purpose, and devarchana (worship of Gods).
In astrology wearing these stones is considered auspicious but in Ayurveda, these are utilized for both Rasayana (therapeutic purpose), and Dharana bearing purpose and are indicated in Various disorders.
Ratna (रत्न):—Precious Stones.
Ratna (रत्न) in the Rigveda and later denotes a precious object, not specifically a ‘jewel’, as in post-Vedic literature. source
Ratnā (रत्ना, “Jewel”):—Fifth of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Śaśinī, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra.
Ratna (रत्न) refers to “jewels”, according to the Halāyudhastotra verses 34-35. source
Ratna (रत्न) refers to “precious gems”, representing the material of the Brahmāṇī’s liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12. source
Ratna (रत्न) refers to “ruby” and represents a kind of precious stone (gem) used for the making of images (Hindu icons), as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras. source
Ratna (रत्न) refers to “precious stones”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”) source