The earliest works available, the Vedas (c. 3,000 B.C. or probably
much earlier), although consisting mainly of hymns of praise and
poems of worship, show a high state of civilization. (...) It is here
that we find the beginnings of the science of mathematics
(arithmetics, geometry, algebra, etc.).
The earliest civilization on the Indian subcontinent is the Indus
Valley Civilization that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BC in the
Indus river basin. Their cities were laid out with geometric
regularity, but no known mathematical documents survive from this
Question: Did the science of mathematics begin with the Vedas? If yes, why?
Was the concept of numbers transmitted by rishis? When?
Yes, vedic mathematics is one subject, deep subject. It gives short cuts for big number calculations. Some people also wanted to implement that logic in making ALUs- Arithmatic and Logical Unit of computer but did not succeed yet.
Rishes gave lots of techniques to solve maths problems in the form of sutras.
Vedic Mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of Mathematics which was rediscovered from the Vedas between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960). According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras or word-formulae.
Based on the available mathematical evidence and the level and depth of mathematics, we can say that only simple concepts of mathematics such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division was known in the Vedic ages. Using these four simple mathematical operation, basic geometry such as area of triangles and rectangles and approximate areas of circles were known. But anything more complicated than that was unknown in the Vedic ages.
The earliest available reference to something like Pythagoras theorem and Pi etc. in any Indian religious or mythological or astrological text or hymn dates back only to Budhiyana who lived around 5th century BC
Similarly, the earliest available reference to the mathematical concept of zero as we know it today dates only to Aryabhatta who lived around the 6th century AD
Both these dates are much younger than the Vedic ages so unless you consider elementary things like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as good enough mathematical concepts, you cannot say with certainty that the Vedas contains anything more mathematically.
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