Yes, vedic mathematics is one subject, deep subject. It gives short cuts for big number calculations. Some people also wanted to implement that logic in making ALUs- Arithmatic and Logical Unit of computer but did not succeed yet.
Rishes gave lots of techniques to solve maths problems in the form of sutras.
Read them here Vedic Mathematics Tricks
What is Vedic Mathematics?
Vedic Mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of Mathematics which was rediscovered from the Vedas between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960). According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras or word-formulae.
Source : What is Vedic Mathematics? <- this link contains many sutras explanation with examples...
In hanuman chalisa, sage Tulsidas mentioned
Yug sastra yojan par bhanu, lilyo tahi madhur fal janu
means in childhood hanumanji jumped to eat sun considering sun is fruit, the distance between sun to earth they mentioned is exactly proven by NASA.
1 Yug = 12000 years
1 Sahastra = 1000
1 Yojan = 8 Miles
Yug x Sahastra x Yojan = -> 12000 x 1000 x 8 miles = 96000000 miles
Convert miles to km
1 mile = 1.6kms
96000000 miles = 96000000 x 1.6kms = 1536000000 kms
to Sun NASA has said that, it is the exact distance between Earth and Sun(Bhanu).
In vedas also numbers are used to mention hymns, also in Mahabharata count of people died in armies is mentioned.
Geometry is also given as maps of rivers etc.
Kings used to make a move during battles by creating vyuha on dummy maps based on their area's geometry only. They also try to increase the area of their territory.
I have no idea about algebra during vedic period.
In ramayana pushpak Plane is also mentioned. This mean aeronautical ideas were also there at that times.
And bridge over sea is also mentioned , so civil engineering concepts can also be understood which has also proofs about Golder Dwarka City in Gujarat.