Hindu Dharma or the Sanatan Dharma claims Universe is cyclic. Currently we are living in Kali yuga. Scriptures predict arrival of Kalki Avatar. However, I guess, scriptures do not mention existence of Christians, Muslims or Buddhists. My question is: do scriptures mention existence of other social groups like Muslim, Christians etc in Kali Yuga?
The Atharva Veda itself is having the following Mantra which accepts the existence of various religions on earth. But it does not name any specific religion.
Janam Vibhrati VahudhA VichAsam - 1
NAnAdhArmAn Prithvi - 2
YathA Okasam - 3
Sahasram DhArA Dravinasya Me DuhAm - 4
Dhruveva Dhenuh Anapasphuranthi - 5
Earth has people who speak various tongues - 1, and those who have various religions - 2, according to their places of abode - 3, (May She or the Earth) pour for me treasures in a thousand streams - 4, like a constant cow that never fails - 5.
Atharva Veda KAnda 12, Sukta 1, Mantra 45.
And, apart from that, the Bhavisya Purana too mentions about the propounders of religions like Islam, Christianity.
From an introductory note of the Purana as found on this page:
The Bhavishya Purana is the eleventh among the Puranas and it contains five parts. The first part contains a description of the genesis, greatness of the deities and worship of Lord Vishnu, Shiva and Surya. Second, third and fourth parts describe about the greatness of Shiva, Vishnu and Surya respectively.
It gives very accurate forecasts about Jesus Christ, Mohammad, Adam and Eve, Noah’s Ark, the fall of Sanskrit and coming of other languages, about the coming of Buddha, Madhavacharya, Chandragupta, Ashoka, Jayadeva and Krishna Chaitanya and about Kutubuddin & the Shaws ruling Delhi. The relevant translations of above events are given on this section.
In particular, the verses in which Jesus Christ is predicted are as follows:
“Ruling over the Aryans was a king called Salivahana, the grandson of Vikramaditya, who occupied the throne of his father. He defeated the Shakas who were very difficult to subdue, the Cinas, the people from Tittiri and Bahikaus who could assume any form at will. He also defeated the people from Rome and the descendants of Khuru, who were deceitful and wicked. He punished them severely and took their wealth. Salivahana thus established the boundaries dividing the separate countries of the Mlecchas and the Aryans. In this way Sindusthan came to be known as the greatest country. That personality appointed the abode of the Mlecchas beyond the Sindhu River and to the west.” (verses 17-21)
ekadaa tu shakadhisho
hunadeshasya madhye vai
giristhan purusam shubhano
dadarsha balaram raajaa
Once upon a time the subduer of the Sakas went towards Himatunga and in the middle of the Huna country (Hunadesh – the area near Manasa Sarovara or Kailash mountain in Western Tibet), the powerful king saw an auspicious man who was living on a mountain. The man’s complexion was golden and his clothes were white (22).
ko bharam iti tam praaha
su hovacha mudanvitah
iishaa purtagm maam viddhi
“The king asked, ‘Who are you sir?’ ‘You should know that I am Isha Putra, the Son of God’. he replied blissfully, and ‘am born of a virgin.’ (23)”
mleccha dharmasya vaktaram
iti srutva nrpa praaha
dharmah ko bhavato matah
” ‘I am the expounder of the religion of the Mlecchas and I strictly adhere to the Absolute Truth.’ Hearing this the king enquired, ‘What are religious principles according to you opinion?’ (24)
shruto vaaca mahaaraaja
praapte satyasya samkshaye
masiiho ‘ham samagatah
iishaamasii ca dasyuunaa
taamaham mlecchataah praapya
“Hearing this questions of Salivahara, Isha putra said, ‘O king, when the destruction of the truth occurred, I, Masiha the prophet, came to this country of degraded people where there are no rules and regulations. Finding that fearful irreligious condition of the barbarians spreading from Mleccha-Desha, I have taken to prophethood’.” (25,26)
These verses are from Bhavishya Purana, Pratisarga Parva, Chaturyuga Khanda Dvitiyadhyayah, 19th Chapter.
Here, Jesus Christ is mentioned as "Isha Putra" and at another place as "Masiah".
Also note that some people believe certain portions (specially the ones which predict the prophets of some other religions) of this Purana to be interpolated (later added). But that's probably because those people can not accept the fact that the Hindu Rishis were being able to predict the future with such degree of accuracy.
Furthermore, discussion can not be based on such claims, because interpolation claims can only be made. Such claims can not be proven or refuted with any degree of conviction.