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As per Hindu culture, we believe in God and worship to them. We should need to remember on time(Like during Morning when we wake up, Then when we eating and last when we sleep) in a day.

So what is thinking behind it? How we do it based on Hinduism?

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SandhyA has to do with sandhi i.e conjunction. This time is considered very important by the seers for spiritual endeavors. Sandhyavandanam is the nityakarma or daily practice recommended in shastras.

The time of sandhyA is the sandhi or junction between two times i.e dawn is the junction of night and day and dusk is the junction of day and night. These events occur due to rotation of earth and positions of Sun in the sky. Hence Sun worship is the key part of sandhyA. Noon time is also considered for the same reason. One can maximize the results of spiritual practices during these timings.

Apart from three or trikaala sandhyAs. Some tantric traditions also have something called turiya sandhya or fourth sandhya which is during the midnight. However this is not done by the commoners.

The importance of Sandhyavandanam

of Kanchi Kamakoti Petam

In Dhanurveda (the Science of archery) there are two kinds of arms; Astra and Shastra. The astra shot would destroy the substance on which it is aimed at (astra prayoga). There is an astra that the Brahmins have to shoot everyday to destroy the evil. When we say astra prayoga we have shoot a weapon. What is that weapon? We throw water to destroy “the evil that is manifested in us; to get rid of sins and impure thoughts; to wipe the dust of bonds, covering the knowledge and reveal the true self; for Knowledge to shine like Sun”.  This astra prayoga has to be done three times a day. While we try to do a hard work we say hold your breath and do it. That is exactly what

we do in Sandhyavandanam by offering Argyam (throwing water).

2.     When some one is doing a work sincerely we say (in Tamil) that he is performing holding his breath. So this work of destroying evil in us has to be done holding the breath. If we do this everyday as prescribed the impure thoughts would go away. We hold the breath to do this. So we say “Pranan Ayamya”(hold the breath)”. We do not say “Nasikam Ayamya (hold the nose)”.

3.     What ever work we do we must concentrate. So is the case when we do Asyta Prayoga using water as Astra. We should hold breath for getting concentration. If we hold the breath how does it hold the mind from wandering?  When the mind is still, breathing stops. When we experience immense happiness or unbearable sorrow or greatly excited our breathing stops for a moment; the mind is still.  Then it runs fast. We do not stop breathing voluntarily. When breathing stops mind is still and vice versa.

4.     When we do Argya pradanam we should do it with concentration.  Pranayamam helps to concentrate.  Pranayamam is yoga that has to be done for a long period of time with under teacher and it is very difficult. We normally do 10 pranayams at a time; sometimes we do three as per procedure.  Had we been doing pranayams from the date of Upanayanam we all would have been Yogeeswaras. What ever we do we have to do properly; is it not?  We must hold breath for 30 seconds in one Pranayamam. Need not do for more time. It must be done suitable to individual’s health. If Pranan stops mind would be still. If this is achieved the water we give as Argya is the Astra.

5.     Every action in sandhyavandanam is an offering to Parameswara. Astra prayoga of Argya should be done. Then Gayatri japam has to be done. Pranayama should be done as many times as possible, but not much. We must do Sankalpa, Marjanam, Prasanam, Punar marjanam, Argya Pradanam, Japam, Strotram, Abhivadanam saying that I do all this to get blessings of Parameshwara. This is know as sankalpa. Marjanam mantra to be said and water to be sprinkled on head. (first five mantras on head, sixth on feet and seventh on head).  Pranayamam is the main activity in the entire sandhyavandanam.  All three times of the day Pranayamam to be done. It should be done only prescribed number of times; excess may cause discomfort unless done under supervision of a learned teacher.  But daily Pranayamam has to be done by everyone (including one is ill) everyday there will no discomfort at all.

6.     We do sin by thought, speech, and body. We have to get rid of the reaction arising out of these sins. So we do karma to get rid of these sins through the Sandhyavandanam.  We utter mantras (speech) do gayathri japam (thought), do marjanam and others (bodily actions). Apart from this Sandhyavandanam is also a form of Bakhti yoga and Gnyana yoga.

7.     Persons who do sandhyavandanam must have individual vessels.  Sandhyavandanam has to be done using those vessels. Pranayamam must be definitely done. Everything to be done as an offering to Eswara (Eswararpanam). Sandhyavandanam should not be done hurriedly.

8.     Several men rose to the level of Maharishis only because they did sandhyavandanam regularly and perfectly. Gayathri japam is being done from the day of the Maharishis in whose lineage we have been born (whom we prostrate saying Abivadanam every time we do Sandyavandanam).  It is ones duty to observe and do what one is expected to do everyday, at least to honour the rishis in whose lineage we have come from. There have been several rishis after the first rishi. In each gotram the number of rishis are mentioned;three rishis, five rishis , seven rishis etc. This confirms that there were that many rishis in that gotram. Srivatsa gotram had five rishis.

9.     One should not break the continuity of the great lineage. One should perform sandhyavandanam three times a day along with Pranayamam with sincerity, with out loss of mantra (pronunciation) uchranam, with total surrender of action to Parameswara with Bakhti and understanding the meaning of each mantra and Prayoga.

Gayathri Japam

1.       The meaning of the word “Gayathri” is that whosoever sings her glory they will be protected. Singing means to utter Her name with devotion and Bhakti. One who sings Gayathri mantra with devotion and bhakti would be ever protected.  That is why the manra avquired the name “Gayathri”.  

2.       In Veda it is said that “Gayathri chandasam matha” which mean that Gayathri is mother of all veda mantras. Chandas means Veda. As per the Shastras the foremost important part of any work is to keep the body clean without decline in mantra shakti. “ deho devalayaha prokto jivaprokthaha sanathanaha”.

3.   The body is a temple.  Jiva is easwara form (easwara roopa). Unclean matter should not taken to the body. Meat, Tobacco and such unclean matter should not be taken to the body (a temple). It is know that temple should not be visited when we are not clean. Similarly importance is attached for cleanliness of the body. 

4.       Body has energy derived from meditation and mantra japam. Adding undesirable material to the body would deteriorate the wellness of the body and weaken the energy. There is a difference in up keeping of house and temple. The restrictions on cleanliness are more severe for temple than for a house. Similarly some bodies are expected to be cleaner than others. Brahmana bodies have to be maintained as clean as temple because the body is purified by constant mantra japam and energy. These Brahmana bodies have to protect the Veda mantras and hence they have to be always maintained pristine pure. No impurities should be added to the body by consuming unwanted materials. It is the foremost duty of Brahman to preserve Vedas and through that do well to the welfare of all species. As he has to do this a Brahmana is bound by many restrictions in his action and expected to observe strict discipline. He can not think others are doing why not I? He can not ask others are consuming certain unclean materials why not I? He can not think others are having certain bodily pleasures why restriction for me? Bramhana’s body is not for enjoying pleasure but for preserving and protecting the Vedas. That is the reason  we spend money and perform Upanayanam. If the body is kept clean like a temple and maintain discipline for everyone would be fine (sowkyam).

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According to Devi Bhagavata purana Sandhya Vandanam and Vedas are the branches of great tree of life or Dharma. And must be carried out continuously by Brahmanas or Dvijas which is mentioned in Sandhya Prakarana.

1-24. Nārāyaṇa said :-- Now I am speaking of the very holy Sandhyopāsanā method of Sandhyā worship of Gāyatrī, the Presiding Deity of the morning, midday and evening, and of the twice-born. Listen. The greatness of using Bhasma has been described in detail. No further need be stated on the subject. I shall talk, first of all, of the morning Sandhyā. The morning Sandhyā is to be done early in the morning while the stars are visible. When the Sun is in the meridian, the midday Sandhyā is to be performed; and while the Sun is visibly going down, the evening Sandhyā is to be recited over.


विप्रोवृक्षोमूलकान्यत्रसंध्यावेदाः शाखा धर्मकर्माणिपत्रम्।
तस्मान्मूलं यत्नतोरक्षणीयं छिन्नेमूलेनैववृक्षो न शाखा ।। Devi Bhagvat 11.16||

The Brāhmaṇas are the root of the Tree, the Sandhyā Vandanam; the Vedas are the branches; the religious actions are the leaves. Therefore its root should be carefully preserved. If the root be cut, no branches or leaves of the tree will remain.

Therefore the Sandhyās must be observed every day. Otherwise no right comes at all to do any actions.


On its benifits Atri Samhita Says the following.

संध्यामुपासते ये तु सततं संशितव्रताः ।
विधूतपापास्ते यान्ति ब्रह्मलोकं सनातनम् ॥ Atri Samhita 1.26 ||

saṁdhyāmupāsate ye tu satataṁ saṁśitavratāḥ |
vidhūtapāpāste yānti brahmalokaṁ sanātanam ||

one who does Sandhya regularly , with perseverance , all their sins are destroyed they eternally reside in Brahmaloka.


Here is a very beautiful article about Philosophical importance of Trikal Sandhya or Sandhya Prayers from himalayanacademy.com

We have already seen that sandhya sometimes refers to the intermediate state between this world and the other, the “state of sleep,” 8 but it has come to mean almost exclusively the meeting together, the union, the conjunction, of the three divisions of the day: morning, noon, evening. It symbolizes the union and reconciliation of the three times, past, present, future, expressed in the three juncture moments of every day and thus of every life as well as of every time span, for the day is merely an abbreviation of the whole life span and the unifying element of real human temporal life.

In other words, sandhya stands for the meeting of the objective and subjective forms of knowledge, the encounter between human and divine ways of dealing with reality.

Sandhya is, equally, the prayer of time. When he is at prayer, Man is not performing a private individual act. He is performing a priestly action in the name of the whole of reality.

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