First of all neo Hindus like Arya samajis who do not believe in traditional dates, and tradition that vyasa edited the Vedas claim such stupidities all the time.
Anyway they claim many things to be interpolation which doesn't subscribe to their philosophy, it was dayanand who first said that Veda is only samhita, many neo Vedics have followed in his path. the writer of puranas and editor of veda are same no wonder you find mention of purana-itihasas, puranic dieties throughout explanatory parts of vedas.
They try to bring Vedas as far as from other hindu holy books. Next time someone claims this tell them that the editor has envisioned agni as energy of Durga, to remove obstacles, also the editor has not tried to hide it you can easily consider it as hymn to remove obstacles where goddess Durga and agni are prayed too together.
We cannot question the mantra of Durga suktam as it is revealed mantra with oldest Sanskrit language, ved vyasa only placed these mantras in books
tAm agni varnAm tapasA jvalantim, vairochanim karma-phalesu jushtAm,
durgAm devim sharnam aham prapadye, sutari tarase namaha ||
●This is clear mention of female goddess durga
The gayatris were added by vyasa into his commentaries on samhitas/revealed mantras- upanishads and aranyakas, traditionally we believe them to be also sabda pramana, there was no puranic period as believed by westerners etc- the gayatris are there so we can crosscheck our scriptures. We can't claim anything to be interpolation as Vedas are passed down in most rigourous fashion, in same way the the ved vyasa edited it we have got it.
Furthermore the suktas like "Durga sukta" and "medha sukta" are not for dieties but rather for multiple dieties and prayers for metaphysical ideas, in medha sukta too Indra, ashvins are prayed for medha (intellligence) and in Durga sukta goddess durga and agni are prayed to remove obstacles (durga)
In "Durga suktam" Durga can either mean goddess Durga or hymn to remove obstacle- in dietic case agni becomes akin to power of goddess Durga, in case of considering it a hymn to remove obstacle- multiple deities are prayed to remove obstacles.
In medha sukta too, one can consider it dietic where goddess saraswati is prayed to as medha, or a hymn to God for bestowing medha (intelligence)
If you want you can add Durga gayatri to Durga suktam or the agni gayatri, or recite it without the gayatri, similarly, you can recite the medha sukta with saraswati gayatri or recite it just as hymn for intelligence, subject matter is more important than which diety is prayed here.
The puranas are considered commentaries on Vedas by trikaljnani vyasa, so the goddess Durga of puranas is same as the one in the hymn of Durga sukta.
If Arya samajis are questioning this mantra they are doing Veda ninda. their atheistic purana-tradition hating interpretations will lead them to hell. By questioning a revealed mantra which is for a "puranic" goddess Arya samajis are commiting blasphemy, in each successive world cycles the mantra is revealed, Veda mantras are eternal. By questioning apaurausheyata of the mantra they are questioning authority of Veda, that's what happens when we have tradition questioning neo Hindus. Of a puranic person interpolated it wouldn't he use Vedic bhasa somewhere else too? Vedic Sanskrit is language of revelation, so it's impossible to imitate which proves it's revealed mantra.
"Durga suktam" name symbolizes subject matter- "durgah"-obstacles, or "durga"-divinity who is hard to get. It's primary hymn to remove obstacles
"Medha suktam" name means intelligence, it's primary hymn to gain intelligence, or prayer for intelligence.