I recently came across this picture of Vishnu's incarnation Narasimha being worshiped by various Devas:
Most of these Devas are recognizable. Starting from the top left and going counterclockwise, I recognize Garuda, Surya, Agni, Daksha, Shiva, Nandi, Kamadhenu, Ganesha, Kartikeya, Parvati, Brahma, Ketu, Tumburu, Vishvaksena, and Garuda.
But my question is, who is the headless god kneeling in the bottom left corner of the picture? And how did he lose his head?
He may be associated with the two horned figures kneeling to him, if that helps.