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A text says that a king named Kakudmi time-traveled in a two-way trip (Earth ⇒ Brahmaloka and Brahmaloka ⇒ Earth). It also says that there is difference in frequency of times at different planes in the universe.

  1. Is there any other scripture that says about time travel (like what Kakudmi did)?

  2. Is there any character in our scripture that time-traveled but without physically traveling in space?

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    Sigh. He did not time travel. This is called TIME DILATION. – Wikash_ Jun 1 at 10:11
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In Bhagavta Purana and some other puranas there is mention of a king named Muchukunda who also experienced a similar effect. He went to join battle for the gods as their commander but by the time he was free to return, all his family and relatives were extinct being swept away by this effect of relative time (SB - 10.51.18).


Update
This answer is based on the verse from Bhagavata as it describes the story a bit more than the other puranas. But anyone who is interested can find the story mentioned at least in the following puranas: Vishnu Purana, Brahma Purana, Skanda Purana, Harivamsha and Padma Purana. This incident may also be present in Mahabharata, but I don't know the chapter number.

Now those who rightly say that the above referenced verse doesn't explicitly state less time had passed for Muchukunda should put some thoughts and analyze the meaning again. Everything is not present in direct words always that everything would be easily understood. Otherwise there would be no explanations, commentaries, bhasyas, etc. by saints and scholars. And there would be no arguments, debates and different sects and creeds.

Anyway, in this verse it should be noted that, not only his family, but relatives, citizens, contemporaries, all are gone in course of time. Had Muchukunda been under the same effect of time, he would have been dead also. But because he was in devaloka the course of time for him was slower and different. If only his family were extinct then someone could have said Muchukunda was probably having a longer life length. But because all the citizens of his Kingdom, his relatives and contemporaries were dead it can be understood that time was running faster on earth compared to where Muchukunda was.

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    Could you tell me what other Puranas mention this story? Because unlike the Wikipedia article, the Srimad Bhagavatam just says that Muchukunda's family was swept away by time, it doesn't explicitly that less time had passed for Muchukunda. – Keshav Srinivasan Aug 21 '14 at 3:02
  • I remember watching this story in Ramanand Sagar's Sri Krishna. – Vineet Menon Aug 22 '14 at 7:46
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First of all that wasn't Time travel, you are talking of a phenomenon known as 'Time Dilation Phenomenon', in the same story it is also written that when he returned to earth, he found his further generations living (not sure but I think it was fourth generation).

The Time dilation phenomenon was given by Albert Einstein which is the part of his "Theory of Relativity".

This link will make it more understandable.

The story might look he traveled to future, but no, in brahma lok the time dilated, meaning his 1 sec might be equal to hours on earth.

Secondly, there are no stories related to time travel, because time travel is actually not possible, you can only give optimistic results of future dependent on the Karmas, Planets and other things.

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    First of all, you shouldn't engage in scientific speculation in this site. Second of all, this wouldn't be a case of time dilation as described in special relativity, because that occurs when you're traveling at speeds close to the speed of light. But in this story, the phenomenon has nothing to do with high-speed travel, it just has to do with time in one place passing at a different rate than time in another place. – Keshav Srinivasan Aug 20 '14 at 12:40
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    @KeshavSrinivasan, my friend I had 6 months studing the same subject, secondly have you heard that people living in highest building of skyscrapper live microseconds more than living on ground, reference to 'Time Dilation'. Thirdly its not written in any book that he didn't traveled above speed of light, rather in our books there are higher speeds listed, like mind,hansa and paramhansa which are higher than speed of light. Lastly, to your first line, hinduism is science, its every aspect is scientific, and there are proofs. – Mr. K Aug 20 '14 at 12:49
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    And Hinduism might have all sorts of connections to science, but the community has decided that it's not appropriate to discuss science in this site, because it leads to too much speculation. – Keshav Srinivasan Aug 20 '14 at 13:01
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    @Mr.K Even science believes that time travel is possible. We can travel in future if we move with speed of light. Besides apart from it an incident mentioned in Shiva purana where Sati did time travel and went to future to take priksha of Rama. At time of Sati, Rama wasn't exist but Sati went in future and after taking priksha she came back in her time. Science is no where near the info provided by our scriptures. It was our saints who discovered planets, starts even thousands of years before your scientist discover. We are founder of space science. This is just an example. I have many more. – Rishabh Oct 24 '17 at 9:00
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    "time travel is actually not possible, " so is a flying horse on which the Kalki avatar will sit and I can name numerous other impossible things in Hinduism. That being said good explanation on time dilation. – Wikash_ Jun 1 at 10:14
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Its Time_dilation(time slowing), not time travel. Time Dilation is a difference in the elapsed time measured by two clocks, either due to them having a velocity relative to each other, or by there being a gravitational potential difference between their locations. After compensating for varying signal delays due to the changing distance between an observer and a moving clock (i.e. Doppler effect), the observer will measure the moving clock as ticking slower than a clock that is at rest in the observer's own reference frame. A clock that is close to a massive body (and which therefore is at lower gravitational potential) will record less elapsed time than a clock situated further from the said massive body (and which is at a higher gravitational potential). In the context of special relativity it was shown by Albert Einstein (1905) that this effect concerns the nature of time itself, and he was also the first to point out its reciprocity or symmetry

Now, similar time dilation can also be seen in some of the stories of Hindu Puranas.

Time Dilation example 1: King Muchukunda

Muchukunda, son of King Mandhata, and brother of equally illustrious Ambarisha was born in the Suryavanshi solar dynasty.

Once, in a battle, the Devas were defeated by the asuras. Tormented by arrows, they sought help from king Muchukunda. King Muchukunda agreed to help them and fought against the asuras for a long time. Since the Devas did not have an able commander, king Muchukunda protected them against the onslaught by asuras, until the Devas got an able commander like Kartikeya, the son of Lord Shiva. Then Indra said to the king Muchukunda, "O king, we, the Devas are indebted to you for the help and protection which you have given us, by sacrificing your own family life. Here in the heaven, one second equals one year of the earth and you had fought with asuras for one year of heaven . Since, it has been a long time, there is no sign of your kingdom and family because it has been destroyed with the passage of time.

Time Dilation example 2: Princess Revati

Revati, within Hinduism, is daughter of King Kakudmi and consort of the God Balarama, the elder brother of Krishna. Bhagavata Purana, Vishnu Purana and Garga Samhita narrate the tale of Revati.

Revati was the only daughter of King Kakudmi(sometimes called Kakudmin, Revata or Raivata), a powerful monarch who ruled Kusasthali. Feeling that no human could prove to be good enough to marry his lovely and talented daughter, Kakudmi took Revati with him to Brahmaloka(abode of Brahma) to ask the God's advice about finding a suitable husband for Revati.

When they arrived, Brahma was listening to a musical performance by the Gandharvas, so they waited patiently until the performance was finished. Then, Kakudmi bowed humbly, made his request and presented his shortlist of candidates. Brahma laughed loudly and explained that time runs differently on different planes of existence and that during the short time they had waited in Brahmaloka to see him, 27 chatur-yugas(a chatur-yuga is a cycle of four yugas, hence 27 chatur-yugas total 108 yugas, the Garga Samhita differs and says 27 yugas in total) had passed on Earth and all the candidates had died long ago. Brahma added that Kakudmi was now alone as his friends, ministers, servants, wives, kinsmen, armies and treasures had now vanished from Earth and he should soon bestow his daughter to a husband as Kali yuga was near.

King Kakudmi was overcome with astonishment and alarm at this news. However, Brahma comforted him and added that God Vishnu, the Preserver, was currently on Earth in the forms of Krishna and Balarama and he recommended Balarama as a worthy husband for Revati.

Kakudmi and Revati then returned to earth, which they regarded as having left only just a short while ago. They were shocked by the changes that had taken place. Not only had the landscape and environment changed, but over the intervening 27 chatur-yugas, in the cycles of human spiritual and cultural evolution, mankind was at a lower level of development than in their own time. The Bhagavata Purana describes that they found the race of men had become "dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in intellect."

Time Dilation example 3: Srimad Bhagvatam: Canto 10

13.40 The selfborn one [Brahmâ] returning after such a long time, saw that, even though it was but a moment later to his own notion, one year later the Lord was playing together with His expansions like He did before.

Hindu scriptures describe 14 Lokas where Brahma Loka is the highest loka and Patala is the lowest 14th loka, while earth is on 7th Bhu loka and Swaraga(where Indra rules) is on 5th loka. Now, King Muchukunda was fighting for a year in Indraloka on 5th realm, while Revati was in 1st realm of Brahmloka for few seconds, hence time dilates(slows) from Brahmloka(1st realm) to Indraloka(5th realm) to Bhuloka(Earth).

As per modern science, time dilates as one moves from black holes to massive stars to average stars(like our sun) as gravity and bend of space-time curvature of each star and its solar system is different leading to the time dilation. This can be better understood through Einstein's Space-Time continuum.

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Yes. We could cite two episodes of time travel from the Indian scripture:

(i) First citation:

1) The Ramacharitamanas by Sril Tulsi Pundit.

2) Time traveller: The divine crow, Kakabhusundi.

Lord Ram showed the divine crow, inside of His eternal (sat-chit-anand) body, where the divine crow saw other universes, he saw his own forms also travelling there, inside the belly of child Rama.

Ref: Ramacharitamanas, "uttar-kand", concluding part (kaka-bhusundi and garud samvad) by Tulsidas Gosvami Pandit, Gita Press (English version).

(ii) Second citation:

1) The Bhagvatam by Sril Veda Vyas.

2) The time travellers: Saint Bhrigu; Krishna and Arjuna.

Bhrigu maharaj visited domains of lord Brahma, lord Vishnu and lord Shiva. And Arjuna travelled time with Krishna on His divine chariot, the causal ("kaaran) Mahavishnu's realm which divides material worlds from the eternal worlds.

Ref: Srimad Bhagvatam; tenth canto ("scand"), chapter#89, part# 1st and 2nd respectively.

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    Hello. Can you elaborate your answer a bit and give some explanation about Kakabhushundi and Ramcharitmanas? How they have travelled and how the time travel is explained? One liners are not encouraged on the site. Please edit to add more information. – Sarvabhouma May 31 at 15:55
  • Go thru "uttar kand" of the RamacharitaManas by Tulsidas Gosvami Pandit, Gita Press (English version). – user30612 Jun 2 at 4:23
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    What is the time travel part then? – Wikash_ Jun 2 at 6:17

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