Is the goddess of devi suktam Durga? is she same as adi shakti, or is adi shakti the goddess of devi suktam different from Durga.
Vaak Suktam Or Devi Suktam is in Rig- Veda - Mandala 10 as sukta 125.
The Rishika of this sukam is Vagambharni i.e. this sukta has been heard by a female sage by name Vaak , who is the daughter of Rishi Ambhrina and so the sukta is also called as the VakAmbharni Sukta.
The explanation given in various sources say that this suktam came out from deep of her heart when she was in communication with Brahman in her worship in exalted state. Here the Rishika is identifying herself with Devi and hence the Devata of this sukta is also VakAmbharni .She has eulogized herself in this sukta as Brahman , here resemblance to Advaita Philosophy.
According to some scholors this sukta is for power of speech and is not related with goddess . But from another point of view this sukta is gateway to Saptasati Chandi.
But we can see the pointing in some mantras towards Devi Laxmi - I am the bestowe of wealth and I grant the wealth and I reside in the oceans. etc. - Mantra 2 & 7
अहं सोममाहनसं बिभर्म्यहं त्वष्टारमुत पूषणं भगम |
अहं दधामि द्रविणं हविष्मते सुप्राव्ये यजमानाय सुन्वते || 2 ||
ahaṃ somamāhanasaṃ bibharmyahaṃ tvaṣṭāramutapūṣaṇaṃ bhagham |
ahaṃ dadhāmi draviṇaṃ haviṣmatesuprāvye yajamānāya sunvate ||
अहं सुवे पितरमस्य मूर्धन मम योनिरप्स्वन्तः समुद्रे |
ततो वि तिष्ठे भुवनानु विश्वोतामूं दयांवर्ष्मणोप सप्र्शामि || 7||
ahaṃ suve pitaramasya mūrdhan mama yonirapsvantaḥ samudre |
tato vi tiṣṭhe bhuvanānu viśvotāmūṃ dyāṃvarṣmaṇopa spṛśāmi ||
As Laxami is often described as emerging from depth of ocean during churning and is the goddess of wealth , prosparity in later Vedic scriptures like puranas.
At the same time we can also observe the presence of of Goddess Saraswati in some - mantras as - I bless the humans to become Poet , scholor , intelligent i.e. fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing. -Mantra 5
अहमेव स्वयमिदं वदामि जुष्टं देवेभिरुत मानुषेभिः |
यं कामये तं-तमुग्रं कृणोमि तं ब्रह्माणं तमृषिं तं सुमेधाम || 5 ||
ahameva svayamidaṃ vadāmi juṣṭaṃ devebhirutamānuṣebhiḥ |
yaṃ kāmaye taṃ-tamughraṃ kṛṇomi tambrahmāṇaṃ taṃ ṛṣiṃ taṃ sumedhām ||
And in some she is said to be fighting for humans i.e. as the Devi Durga told in puranas. - Mantra 6.
अहं रुद्राय धनुरा तनोमि ब्रह्मद्विषे शरवे हन्तवा उ |
अहं जनाय समदं कृणोम्यहं द्यावापृथिवी आ विवेश || 6 ||
ahaṃ rudrāya dhanurā tanomi brahmadviṣe śarave hantavāu |
ahaṃ janāya samadaṃ kṛṇomyahaṃ dyāvāpṛthivī āviveśa ||
So it's clear that this Sukta is definitely related to Goddess. As we can see from above.
Here Devi is proclaming herself as source of all the creation , source of all creative power , conciousness i.e. Brahman herself.
Conclusion - So the devotees can say that the Goddess mentioned in this suktam is Adi-Parashakti with all her aspects and forms like Durga , Laxmi , Saraswati etc. As Adi Parashakti is the supreme Brahman in Shakta tradition. And as she is described as Brahman in the sukta , She is Adi-Parashakti. This sukta is chanted during the worship of the Universal Goddess in any form.
Here is complete Devi Suktam with translation and some good explanation.
She is the same as Adi Shakti or Goddess Durga and not any other Goddesses.
We can show this by using the Devi Atharva Sirsha.
This Upanishad has the Mantras of the Rig Vedokta Devi Suktam in the praise of Devi as follows:
अहं रुद्रेभिर्वसुभिश्चरामि ।
अहमादित्यैरुत विश्वदेवैः ।
अहं मित्रावरुणावुभौ बिभर्मि ।
अहमिन्द्राग्नी अहमश्विनावुभौ ॥५॥
अहं सोमं त्वष्टारं पूषणं भगं दधामि।
अहं विष्णुमुरुक्रमं ब्रह्माणमुत प्रजापतिं दधामि ॥६॥
अहं दधामि द्रविणं हविष्मते सुप्राव्ये उ यजमानाय सुन्वते ।
अहं राष्ट्री सङ्गमनी वसूनां चिकितुषी प्रथमा यज्ञियानाम् ।
अहं सुवे पितरमस्य मूर्धन्मम योनिरप्स्वन्तः समुद्रे ।
य एवम् वेद। स देवीं सम्पदमाप्नोति ॥७॥
I move about in form of Rudra and Vasu. I move about as Aditya and all the Gods. I sustain Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Agni and both the Ashvinas. In me there are Soma, Tvasta, Pusha and Bhaga. In me there are Vishnu with wide footsteps, Brahma and Prajapati. I bring Wealth with Havi (oblation) to that man who offers the best Havi to Gods and consecrates Soma. I am the Empress of this whole Universe. I give wealth to worshippers. I am the observer and the first amongst those worth worshipping. I create on myself (as basis of all) the primordial elements. My abode is in the waters of Samudra (the ocean of consciousness). One who knows this obtains divine wealth.
After that a prayer by the gods to the Goddess is given in the text. If we go through that prayer, it's quite clear that it is talking about Mother Goddess whose names are like Durga, Chandika or even Lalita.
Because, as per the text, the Goddess is to be worshipped by the famous Panchadashi Mantra of SriVidya as well.
Further, Mantroddhara (decoding the Mantra) for the famous Devi Mantra viz - the ".. Chamundayai Vicce" one is also given in the text. (This is called the Navakshari Mantra of Devi Durga/Chandi and it's widely used in Chandi Patha).
So, the Goddess is Durga only who's speaking through Vak in those Rig Vedic Mantras.
Further, to dispel all doubts, the name of that Goddess (who's speaking the Vak Sukta) is also explicitly mentioned in the AtharvaSirhas as follows:
yasyāḥ svarūpaṃ brahmādayo na jānanti tasmāducyate ajñeyā ।
yasyā anto na labhyate tasmāducyate anantā ।
yasyā lakṣyaṃ nopalakṣyate tasmāducyate alakṣyā ।
yasyā jananaṃ nopalabhyate tasmāducyate ajā ।
ekaiva sarvatra vartate tasmāducyate ekā ।
ekaiva viśvarūpiṇī tasmāducyate naikā ।
ata evocyate ajñeyānantālakṣyājaikā naiketi ॥23॥
Even Brahma and the other Devas do not know her real form, so she is called Ajñeya. We do not find its limit, so she is called Ananta. We can not find the meaning, so she is called Alakshya. Her birth is not known, so she is called Aja. She is found everywhere, so she is called Eka, the One. She has taken up all the various forms, so she is called Naika. Because of this she is called these various names.
mantrāṇāṃ mātṛkā devī śabdānāṃ jñānarūpiṇī ।
jñānānāṃ cinmayātītā śūnyānāṃ śūnyasākṣiṇī ।
yasyāḥ parataraṃ nāsti saiṣā durgā prakīrtitā ॥24॥
Amongst the mantras She is the original sounds, in the words She is the essence of knowledge. Amongst the knowledge She is beyond what is comprehensible by analysis and by deep meditation, She is the witness to that state. She is well known as Durga, there is nothing superior to her.
Saisa Durga prakirtita - So that Goddess is known by the name of Durga.
I like to add to all the previous ones which clearly bring out that the sukta is the realization of shakti as shuddha chaitanya as AdyaaShakti.
- One more pramaNa I add is from Brahmanda purana where Vishnu informs Bhairava that:
Adyaashaktirmaheshasya Chaturdha bhinna vigrahaa
Bhoge Bhavaanee, Sangare Durga, kopeshu KaaLee
- The line ..aham suve pitarsmasya moordhan mama yoni apsu is NOT lakshmidevi It is that suvah is the murdhni of male factor which is also HER that Is Shakti projection and Apsu Aapah that is water is YONi the karana of creation which is also projection of adya Shakti or shuddha chsitanya.. in the seventh and last anuvaak she is saying that SHE the shuddha chaitanya is immanent and transcendent to ALL, like the waft of wind enclosing and permeating everything