Yes , The practice and perfection of Asana is a prerequisite for pranayama. The Yogic scriptures tells us that that we should practice pranayama after fully acquiring technique of Yoga Asanas i.e. postures.
If our internal organs are not healthy, not strong and balanced, then the practice of pranayama will have an negative effect on our body and mind. That's why pranayama is an advanced Yogic practice , perfection in Yama , Niyama and Asana is the prerequisite.
Asanas as Prerequisite -:
Maharshi Patanjali In his Yoga Sutras - Part 2- Yoga and its Practice - Sutra 49 - is telling us the procedure of doing pranayama and he is advising us to gain mastery on postures.
तस्मिन् सति श्वासप्रश्वास्योर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः ॥४९॥
tasmin sati śvāsa-praśvāsyor-gati-vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ ||49||
After mastering posture, one must practice control of the prana
(pranayama) by stopping the motions of inhalation and exhalation.
Here is what Vedanta Commentary on Yoga-Sutras is warning us about practicing Pranayama.
What must be emphasized is this: no one should practise the advanced
exercises of pranayama without the constant supervision of an
experienced teacher. And no one should practise them under any
circumstances unless he is leading an absolutely chaste life devoted
entirely to the search for God. Otherwise they may easily lead to
mental disturbances of the most dangerous kind. Those who encourage
others to adopt such practices out of curiosity or vanity can only be
described as criminals.
Hatha Yoga Pradipika
Chapter II - On Pranayama - also mentioning the same thing as above.
अथासने दॄधे योगी वशी हित-मिताशनः |
गुरूपदिष्ह्ट-मार्गेण पराणायामान्समभ्यसेत || १ ||
athāsane dṝdhe yoghī vaśī hita-mitāśanaḥ |
ghurūpadiṣṭa-mārgheṇa prāṇāyāmānsamabhyaset || 1 ||
Posture becoming established, a Yogī, master of himself, eating salutary and moderate food, should practise Prāṇāyāma, as instructed
by his guru.
That means no matter which Asana is used during Pranayama , but one should attain mastery on that postures or all else for getting Pranayamas complete benefits and that is a prerequisite.
Suggested postures for Pranayama -
Padmasana , Virasana , Bhadrasana ,Svastika , Dandasana , Paryanka , Sopasraya , Kraunchanisadana , Samasamsthana , Sthirasukha.