Here in Muktika Upanishads, Rama describes Kaivalya Moksha is ultimate. What is it? Is it merging into existence of Brahman?

I-i-15-17. Hanuman: Rama, sages speak differently: some say there is only one kind of liberation. Others say it can be got by worshipping your name and by the Taraka mantra at Kashi. Others speak of Sankhya-Yoga and Bhakti-Yoga, the enquiry into Vedanta-Vakyas etc.

I-i-18-23. Rama: Liberation is of four kinds: Salokya etc. But the only real type is Kaivalya. Anybody even though leading a wicked life, attains Salokya, not other worlds, by worshipping my name. Dying in the sacred Brahmanala in Kashi, he will get the Tarakamantra and also liberation, without rebirth. On dying anywhere (else) in Kashi, Maheshvara will utter the Taraka-mantra in his right ear. He gets Sarupya with me as his sins are washed away. The same is called Salokya and Sarupya. Persevering in good conduct, with mind fixed upon me, loving me as the Self of all, the twice-born gets nearer to me – This is called the three forms of liberation. Salokya, Sarupya and Samipya.

I-i-24-25. Meditating on my eternal form as prescribed by the Teacher, one will surely achieve identity with me like the insects changing into the bee. This alone is the liberation of identity (Sayujya) yielding the bliss of Brahman. All these four kinds of Mukti will be got by worshipping Me.

4 Answers 4


Kaivalya mukti is a state of solitude, loneliness, isolation and detachment. Word is Kaivalya is its roots in the Sanskrit word "kevala ,केवल ", meaning alone isolated. It is a separation of Self or Soul of the yogi from prakriti or nature or out side world . This is final stage of enlightenment that a yogi can reach, also in other words called as moksha.

So Kaivalya mukti is a detachment and independence from our relationships, egoism, attraction, desires and birth and death cycle . A yogi must perform austerities or Tapas , yoga and and achieve self control . The yogis who reach this state is called a Kevalin .

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali as well as various Muktika Upanishads do talks about a yogi who achieved kaivalya and is independent from all bonds and this samsara
Subala Upanishad of shukla Yajurveda - Chapter XIII (thirteenth khaṇḍa) is giving us the description of Kaivalya state and a Yogi in that state.

बाल्येन तिष्ठासेद्बालस्वभावोऽसङ्गो निरवद्यो मौनेन पाण्डित्येन निरवधिकारतयोपलभ्येत |
कैवल्यमुक्तं निगमनं प्रजापतिरुवाच महत्पदं ज्ञात्वा वृक्षमूले वसेत कुचेलोऽसहाय एकाकी |
समाधिस्थ आत्मकाम आप्तकामो निष्कामो जीर्णकामो हस्तिनि सिंहे दंशे मशके नकुले |
सर्पराक्षसगन्धर्वे मृत्यो रूपाणि विदित्वा न बिभेति कुतश्चनेति वृक्षमिव तिष्ठासेच्छिद्यमानोऽपि |
न कुप्येत न कम्पेतोत्पलमिव तिष्ठासेच्छिद्यमानोऽपि न कुप्येत न कम्पेताकाशमिव तिष्ठासेच्छिद्यमानोऽपि |
न कुप्येत न कम्पेत सत्येन तिष्ठासेत्सत्योऽयमात्मा ||

The wise man should conduct himself like a lad, with the nature of a child, without company, blameless, silent and wise and without exercising any authority. This description of Kaivalya is stated by Prajāpati. Having found with certitude the supreme seat, one should dwell under a tree with torn cloths, unaccompanied, single and engaged in samādhi. He should be longing after the attaining of Ātmā and having attained this object, he is desireless, his desires have decayed. He fears none, though he finds the cause of death in such as elephants, lions, gadflies, musquitoes, ichneuma, serpents, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, and Gandharvas. He will stand like a tree. Though cut down, he will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand (or remain) like a lotus. Though pierced, he will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand like ākāś; though struck, he will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand by Satya (truth), since Ātmā is Satya.

In his Yoga sutras -Part 4 - kaivalya Pada - Patanjali tells us about what happens when a yogi detaches himself from prakriti or this samsara. In this state a yogi isolates himself from prakriti and her gunas , then they don't have any purpose to serve for the Atman or self , which a yogi realised , they merge with nature. And self alone remains , and shines forth as pure consciousness , ultimate truth as its true nature.

पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति ॥ 34||

Puruṣārthaśūnyānāṃ guṇānāṃ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṃ svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti||34||

Since the gunas no longer have any purpose to serve for the Atman, they resolve themselves into Prakriti. This is liberation. The Atman shines forth hilts own pristine nature, as pure consciousness.

And this is second explanation of a Yogi in his Kaivalya state of above sutra by Patanjali.

The enlightened Yogi: Such an enlightened Yogi is purely spontaneous, with no actions whatsoever being motivated by the inner drives of samskaras and karma. One hundred percent of actions are from the here-and-now response to the needs of the moment, in relation to the service of other beings. This is easy for such a yogi, as there is no I and no other; it is all a constant flow of pure, undivided consciousness (purusha), that only seems to play, here, there, and everywhere.

In Kaivalya mukti no new karmas are generated ,since he is completely detached from the world , his sanskaras or memories which are responsible for birth and death cycle vanishes. a yogi completely gets free from differences i.e. dvaita and he experience complete unity with Brahman . And dwells in that state doing karma's just for others , having no desires of fruits.


As per definition on wiki:

Kaivalya (कैवल्य), is the ultimate goal of Raja yoga and means "solitude", "detachment" or "isolation", a vrddhi-derivation from kevala "alone, isolated". It is the isolation of purusha from prakṛti, and subsequent liberation from rebirth, i.e., Moksha. Kaivalya-Mukti is described in some Upanishads such as Muktika and Kaivalya as the most superior form of Moksha which can grant liberation both within this life Jivanmukti and after death Videhamukti and the essence of all Upanishads

SB 2.3.12 says:

jñānaṁ yad āpratinivṛtta-guṇormi-cakram  ātma-prasāda uta yatra guṇeṣv asaṅgaḥ kaivalya-sammata-pathas tv atha bhakti-yogaḥ  ko nirvṛto hari-kathāsu ratiṁ na kuryāt


Transcendental knowledge in relation with the Supreme Lord Hari is knowledge resulting in the complete suspension of the waves and whirlpools of the material modes. Such knowledge is self-satisfying due to its being free from material attachment, and being transcendental it is approved by authorities. Who could fail to be attracted?

Thus bhakti-yoga, being the only means of God realization, is called kaivalya. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī quotes the Vedic version (eko nārāyaṇo devaḥ, parāvarāṇāṁ parama āste kaivalya-saṁjñitaḥ) in this connection and establishes that Nārāyaṇa, the Personality of Godhead, is known as kaivalya, and the means which enables one to approach the Lord is called the kaivalya-panthā, or the only means of attainment of Godhead. This kaivalya-panthā begins from śravaṇa, or hearing those topics that relate to the Personality of Godhead, and the natural consequence of hearing such hari-kathā is attainment of transcendental knowledge, which causes detachment from all mundane topics, for which a devotee has no taste at all.

  • So Kaivalya is not impersonal liberation? Commented Aug 17, 2018 at 15:31

Here is the definition of Kaivalya given by Lord Mahadeva in the Ishvara Gita.

Kurma purana II.10

enter image description here

The terms mukti or mokṣa and apavarga are well explained by Kṣīrasvāmin, the renowned commentator of Amarakosha as the release of the Self from all bondages and release from existence. There, He also gives the Advaita term kaivalya to mukti or mokṣa.

He also adds three words mahānanda and apunarbhava in the same sense–

mocanaṃ muktirmokṣaḥ pāśebhyaḥ ātmanaḥ pṛthagbhāvaḥ | āta eva kaivalyākhyā | bhāvebhyo'pavarjanamapavargaḥ | mahānandopunarbhavaśca |


The cycle of births and deaths comes only through ajñāna and perishes only through jñāna. Jñāna alone was originally. It should be known as the only means (of salvation). That is jñāna through which one cognises (in himself) the real nature of kaivalya as the supreme seat, the stainless, the partless, and of the nature of Saccidānanda without birth, existence and death and without motion and jñāna.

~ Yogatattva Upanishad

The Brahman-knowing person, who is equal unto Brahman itself, is neither glorified by good acts nor defiled by bad ones. It is only in ordinary men that acts, good or bad, produce different results. The person that knows Brahman should be regarded as identical with Amrita or the state called Kaivalya which is incapable of being affected by either virtue or vice. One should, therefore, disposing his mind in the way indicated, attain to that essence of sweetness (Brahman).

~ Mahabharata Udyoga parva, Sanatsujata parva section XLVI

The cause of Salvation has thus been explained. Kaivalya (Absolution) is due to Liṅgābhāva (Absence of the minute body called Liṅgaśarīra) and through Kaivalya there is Nirañjana (pure and unsullied state), and through the unsullied nature one becomes pure. There is no cither leader (Netā).

~ Brahmanda Purana upasamhara pada chapter 3

When a sage is delighted in his own Self (ātman), and after going through many births is unattached and averse to everything upto (i.e. including) the region of Brahmā.(and being) my devotee has realized the true Self, by my grace, he easily attains to his essential state, as distinct from his physical body,—a state of final beatitude called Kaivalya. The wise man who has cut asunder all doubts (i.e. pseudo-knowledge) by his vision of the Self (ātmajñāna) goes by my grace to the state attained after the destruction of the subtle body (liṅga-śarīra) and from which state there is no reversion (to saṃsāra).

~ Bhagavata purana 3.27.27-29

That absolute position which gives joy and happiness due to the experience of one’s own self is called Niśśreyas, Nirvāṇa, Kaivalya and Mokṣa.

~ Padma purana Uttara Khanda Chapter 228

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .