We know that there are six Astika schools of philosophy (Darshana, Sanskrit: दर्शन) which are Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimansa and Vedanta. And further there are sub-schools of Vedanta viz. Advaita, Vishishtadvaita, Shuddhadvaita, Achintya Bhedabheda etc. There are also some other popular philosophical schools e.g. Kashimiri Shaiva and Shiva Siddhanta.

Now, each Darshana has a canonical text (Sutra) which defines and describes core concept/principles of particular doctrine. I found that there are some popular established theory (Vada, Sanskrit: वाद) in relation to particular doctrine.

For example, as I've discussed in this post Vivartavada is one which Adi Shankaracharya explained for his preaching on Advaita, Ajatavada is one which Gaudapada established in his Karika on Mandukya Upanishad. So, Vivartavada and Ajatavada are two theories of Advaita. Similarly, later on I found that Vishishtadvaita believes in Parinama-Vada and Sankhya in Satkarya-Vada. So, I'm interested to know others also.

Hence, I want to know What are some popular Vadas (theories) endorsed by different philosophies?

Answer providing/listing popular Vadas in relation to respective Darshana with just a little (to avoid question becoming too-broad) explanation, citing source from text of respective philosophy would be very useful.

  • 2
    Dvaita is called Tattvavada. Advaita is also called Mayavada as a pejorative. Madhyamika Buddhism is called Shunyavada. Sep 23, 2018 at 6:06
  • What is Satkarya Vada?
    – user9969
    Sep 23, 2018 at 6:07

1 Answer 1


There are primarily three VAdas that are associated with the Shad Darshanas.

  1. Aramabha VAda, 2. ParinAma VAda and 3. Vivarta VAda. There is also a SamghAta VAda which is held by the SautrAntika and VaibhAshika Bauddhas in which they believe that the Ghata (pot) is the SamghAta (interaction) of the mud particles but they don't recognize the particles changing into the pot as an evolution of an entirely new object.

Here, 1. is the view of Vaisheshika Darshana, 2. that of SAmkhya etc and 3. that of VedAnta.

This is mentioned in the following verse from the Samkshepa SArirakam (SS):

ArambhavAda kanabhapakshah samghAtavadantu bhadantapakshah |
SAmkhyAdipakshah parinAmavado vedAntapakshah vivartavAda ||

ArmabhavAda is Kanava's or Vaisheshika's arguemt/view, SamghAtavAda is Sugata's argument. ParinAmavAda is SAmkhya's argument and VivartavAda is that of VedAnta.
SS 2.63


Just like the previously non-existent pot is created from mud particles, the theory, which proposes a similar creation of the previously non-existent world from previously existing atoms, is called the Arambha VAda. This is the Vaisheshika's view.

ParinAma VAda:

This is the view of the SAmkhya Philosophy. Here creation happens when previously existing objects change their forms to something similar (SamasattA Vishishta). Just like curd is the effect (parinAma) of milk, Prakriti's ParinAma is the visible and the invisible world.

Vivarta VAda:

Here, the creation is seen as an illusion. The ingredients (or UpAdAna) get transformed into something dissimiliar (Asama Satta Vishishta), unlike SAmkhya's theory.

For example, due to illusion, the appearance of the rope as the snake (Sarpa Rajju Bhrama) is known as Vivarta. Here, the rope actually does not change to something else (unlike the milk which in truth got transformed into curd). This theory is also known as "AjAta VAda" which advocates that in reality there is no creation.

Besides these three I have found many others but it will take time to update this answer with all that info.

  • Can you also add bit information about Samkshepa Sarirakam?
    – Pandya
    Sep 23, 2018 at 6:48
  • Btw, I once read that Paramanukara-Vada is Vaisheshika view and Arambhavada is Nyaya view.
    – Pandya
    Sep 23, 2018 at 6:48
  • SS is an imp book for the Advaita Vedanta school. I have this book. I have added a link to it in the answer now. @Pandya
    – Rickross
    Sep 23, 2018 at 7:05
  • Ok. Thanks. It's attributed to Sarvajnatman, 3rd Shankaracharya of Kamakoti Peetha.
    – Pandya
    Sep 23, 2018 at 7:11

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