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The Dharmashastras prescribe various penances such as the Prajapatya, Chandrayana, and Krccha penances.

For example, here is a verse from the Manusmriti:

On having had intercourse with one’s sister born of his father’s sister, or of his mother’s sister, or of his mother’s full brother,—one should perform the Cāndrāyaṇa.—(171)

A verse from the Vasishta Dharma Sutras:

If he has had intercourse with a female considered venerable in the family, with a female friend, with the female friend of a Guru, with an Apapātra female, or with an outcast,—he shall perform the Kṛcchra penance for three months.’

Here is a verse from the Vishnu Smriti:

(53.1),—‘One who has had illicit sexual intercourse must perform the Prājāpatya penance for one year,—according to the rule of the Mahāvrata, clad in a garment of bark and living in a forest.’

So what are these penances and how to do them?

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Prajapatya, Chandrayana and Krcchra are the penances done for the expiation of some certain sins as you have described in your question.

  1. Prajapatya is defined in Manu Smriti, Chapter 11, Verse 211 as:

त्र्यहं प्रातस्त्र्यहं सायं त्र्यहमद्यादयाचितम् ।
त्र्यहं परं च नाश्नीयात् प्राजापत्यं चरन् द्विजः ॥ २११ ॥

tryahaṃ prātastryahaṃ sāyaṃ tryahamadyādayācitam |
tryahaṃ paraṃ ca nāśnīyāt prājāpatyaṃ caran dvijaḥ || 211 ||

The twice-born, who is performing the Prājāpatya, shall eat in the morning for three days, then in the evening for three days, then for three days food got unasked, and for the next three days he shall not eat.—(211)

  1. There are many types of Kricchra is defined in same chapter of Manu Smriti as: Santapana, Ati, Tapta, Paraka.

गोमूत्रं गोमयं क्षीरं दधि सर्पिः कुशोदकम् ।
एकरात्रोपवासश्च कृच्छ्रं सान्तपनं स्मृतम् ॥ २१२ ॥

gomūtraṃ gomayaṃ kṣīraṃ dadhi sarpiḥ kuśodakam |
ekarātropavāsaśca kṛcchraṃ sāntapanaṃ smṛtam || 212 ||

Taking cow’s urine, cow-dung, milk, curds, clarified butter, kuśa-water, and fasting for one day,—has been declared to be ‘Sāntapana Kṛcchra’— (212)

एकैकं ग्रासमश्नीयात् त्र्यहाणि त्रीणि पूर्ववत् ।
त्र्यहं चोपवसेदन्त्यमतिकृच्छ्रं चरन् द्विजः ॥ २१३ ॥

ekaikaṃ grāsamaśnīyāt tryahāṇi trīṇi pūrvavat |
tryahaṃ copavasedantyamatikṛcchraṃ caran dvijaḥ || 213 ||

The twice-born man who is performing the ‘Atikṛcchra’ shall eat only one mouthful at each of the three times mentioned above, for three days,—and shall fast during the last three days.—(213)

तप्तकृच्छ्रं चरन् विप्रो जलक्षीरघृतानिलान् ।
प्रतित्र्यहं पिबेदुष्णान् सकृत्स्नायी समाहितः ॥ २१४ ॥

taptakṛcchraṃ caran vipro jalakṣīraghṛtānilān |
pratitryahaṃ pibeduṣṇān sakṛtsnāyī samāhitaḥ || 214 ||

The Brāhmaṇa who is performing the ‘Tapta-Kṛcchra’ shall drink hot water, hot milk, hot clarified butter and hot air,—each for three days; bathing once and having his mind concentrated.—(214)

यतात्मनोऽप्रमत्तस्य द्वादशाहमभोजनम् ।
पराको नाम कृच्छ्रोऽयं सर्वपापापनोदनः ॥ २१५ ॥

yatātmano'pramattasya dvādaśāhamabhojanam |
parāko nāma kṛcchro'yaṃ sarvapāpāpanodanaḥ || 215 ||

If a man, self-controlled and guarded, fasts for twelve days,—this constitutes the ‘Kṛcchra’ name ‘Parāka’, which removes all sins.—(215)

  1. Now, Chandrayana is defined in Manu Smriti, Chapter 11, Verse 216 as:

एकैकं ह्रासयेत् पिण्डं कृष्णे शुक्ले च वर्धयेत् ।
उपस्पृशंस्त्रिषवणमेतत्चाण्ड्रायणं स्मृतम् ॥ २१६ ॥

ekaikaṃ hrāsayet piṇḍaṃ kṛṣṇe śukle ca vardhayet |
upaspṛśaṃstriṣavaṇametatcāṇḍrāyaṇaṃ smṛtam || 216 ||

If one reduces his food by one morsel daily during the dark half of the month, and increases it during the light half,—bathing at the three ‘extractions,’—it is what has been called the ‘Cāndrāyaṇa.’—(216)

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