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During the rituals for a Navagraha puja, I saw that the avahana was done for the stars (nakshatra) of the yajamaana and his family. I didn't pay much attention until I heard that the devatha for the star "Magam" (or Makhaa) being the Pitrs! Now I am curious to know where from these devathas for each each Nakshatra are assigned. Same question goes for the Navagrahas.

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For Navagrahas one such scriptural source is the Matsya Purana.

A Vedi(platform) is to be prepared with white rice grains with Surya Deva the Center, Mangal in the South, Brihaspati in the North, North East with Budha, East as Shukra, South East as Chandra, West as Shani, South West as Rahu, and North West as Ketu. The Adhi Devatas to each of the Planets are as follows: Shiva for Surya, Parvati for Chandra, Skanda for Mangal, Vishnu for Budha, Brahma for Brihaspati, Indra for Shukra, Yama for Shanaischara, Kaala Devata forRahu and Chitragupta for Ketu. The Pratyabhidevatas respectively are Agni, Varuna, Prithvi, Vishnu, Indra, Aindri, Prajapati, Sarpa and Brahma. Besides, Vinayaka, Durga, Vayu, Aakasha, and Ashvini Kumars and these are also to be invoked by individual names.

For the Nakshtras, the scriptural source is Krishna Yajurveda.

The Taittiriya Samhita 4.4.10 gives the following list of the usual 27 Nakshatras and their ruling deities:

Krittika (Agni),
Rohini (Prajapati),
Mrigashirsham (Soma),
Ardra (Rudra),
Punarvasu (Aditi),
Tishya (Brihaspati),
Ashresha (Sarpa),
Magha (Pitrs),
Phalguni (Aryama),
Phalguni (Bharga),
Hasta ( Savita),
Chitra (Indra),
Svasti (Vayu),
Vishakha (Indragni),
Anuradha (Mitra),
Rohini (Indra),
Vichrtau (Pitarau),
Ashada-Purva (Apaha),
Ashadha-Uttara (Viswadeva),
Shrona (Vishnu),
Shravishtha (Vasava),
Shatabhisha (Indra),
Proshtapada (Ekapada),
Proshtapada (Ahirbudhna),
Revati (Pusham),
Ashvayujau (Ashvinau),
Apabharani (Yama).

Note that in the above list, all the 27 Nakshatras, that we know in Jyotisha, are mentioned. But few are having unfamiliar names. For example, we are familiar with Shravana but the list mentions it as Shrona. Similarly, we know about the Bhadrapadas but here they are mentioned as Proshtapadas.

(Thou art) Rohini the Naksatra, Prajapati the deity; Mrgaçirsa the Naksatra, Soma the deity; Ardra the Naksatra, Rudra the deity; the two Punarvasus the Naksatra, Aditi the deity; Tisya the Naksatra, Brhaspati the deity; the Açresas the Naksatra, the serpents the deity; the Maghas the Naksatra, the fathers the deity; the two Phalgunis the Naksatra , Aryaman the deity; the two Phalgunis the Naksatra, Bhaga the deity; Hasta the Naksatra, Savitr the deity; Citra the Naksatra, Indra the deity; Svati the Naksatra, Vayu the deity; the two Viçakhas the Naksatra, Indra and Agni the deity; Anruradha the Naksatra, Mitra the deity; Rohini the Naksatra, Indra the deity; the two Viçrts the Naksatra; the fathers the deity; the Asadhas the Naksatra, the waters the deity; the Asadhas the Naksatra, the All-gods the deity; Çrona the Naksatra, Visnu the deity; Çravistha the Naksatra, the Vasus the, deity; Çatabhisaj the Naksatra, Indra the deity; Prosthapadas the Naksatra, the goat of one foot the deity; the Prosthapadas the Naksatra, the serpent of the deep the deity; Revati the Naksatra, Pusan the deity; the two Açvayujs the Naksatra, the Açvins the deity; the Apabharanis the Naksatra, Yama the deity.

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