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Who is the deity of the Purusha Suktam according to different schools?

According to Vaishnavism, it is Vishnu:

The Sukta gives an expression to immanence of radical unity in diversity and is therefore, seen as the foundation of the Vaishnava thought, Bhedabheda school of philosophy and Bhagavata theology.

Who do Shaivas, Shaktas, etc think this Purusha is?

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  • I'm confident that the answer is not gonna surprise anyone. Jan 9 '19 at 3:30
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    one Sakteya Upasaka-sri vidya-, told me, its not Vishnu , its actually praising Aditya for whom we chant Purusha Suktam Jan 10 '19 at 14:30
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    @SaMolPP It cannot be Aditya because there is a verse in the Purusha Suktam that says that the Sun (Aditya) came from the Purusha himself, so the Purusha cannot be the Sun!
    – Ikshvaku
    Jan 10 '19 at 16:31
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Who is the deity of the Purusha Suktam according to different schools?

The deity of any Vedic Sukta/Mantra does not vary with schools ... The three limbs of any Vedic Mantra are fixed and no school can change the parameters according to their whims. The three limbs are - Rishi, Devata and Chandah. And, if some do that then that is equivalent to tampering with the Vedas.

For the Purusha Sukta, which is Rig Veda 10.90, the Devata is Purusha, Rishi is Narayana and metres are Anushtup and Trishtup.

See the screenshot:

enter image description here

And for the Mantra, which describes the two consorts of Purusha, the deity is Aditya.

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    How can the deity be Aditya when the Purusha Sukta says that aditya came from the purusha? Plus it is well known that Lakshmi is the wife of Vishnu, not aditya.
    – Ikshvaku
    Jan 11 '19 at 12:41
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    How can the deity be? Lol ask that Veda itself... coz the deity is definitely Aditya.. also the sun that was created by/from Purusha is mentioned as Surya.. and not Aditya .. chk the relevant PS mantra.. @Ikshvaku
    – Rickross
    Jan 11 '19 at 12:44
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    The deity is Vishnu because of the indication of the wives of the Purusha being Hri (Bhudevi) and Lakshmi, and because the first verse is "sahasra sirsha purusha", which is also the first line of Narayana Sukta: "sahasra sirsham"
    – Ikshvaku
    Jan 11 '19 at 14:53
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    If u know already who the deity is wht's the point of asking the Q? Also deity of the Sukta is Purusha and of that particular mantra is Aditya ... See any translation of that mantra it starts like this "O Aditya or O Sun .." @Ikshvaku
    – Rickross
    Jan 11 '19 at 15:59
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    I asked the question to see how different schools, like Shaivism etc, interpreted the who the Purusha is. And if it's Aditya, isn't Aditya the same as the Sun?
    – Ikshvaku
    Jan 11 '19 at 16:10
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Purusha Sukta appeared first in Rig Veda 10.90. Narayana Maharshi was the 'Mantra Drashta'(seer) of the hymn. This Narayana Maharshi was later incarnated as Devaki putra Sri Krishna during Dwaparayuga. His counterpart Nara Maharshi was born as 'Arjuna'. By the grace of Lord Shiva, Narayana Mahrshi got the divine vision of Purusha. He was the first Human Rishi to realise the universal oneness and oneness of Atman in all beings. This non-dual knowledge made Narayana Rishi merge with Lord Shiva. Those who know Purusha will become, verily, like Purusha, the self of all beings.

Purusha in Purusha Suktam refers to Cosmic Entity. If one is interested in looking for any deities in Purusha Suktam then it is Mahadev in his Sada-Shiva form.

Vedas recognize Lord Shiva as Purusha. Taittirya Aranyka 10: 24: 1 of Yajurved says "purusho vai rudra" Which means Rudra is Veda-Purusha.

http://hara-hara-mahadev.blogspot.com/2010/07/purusha-suktam-hymn-to-lord-rudra-also.html?m=1

The above link explains verse by verse how Purusha Suktam euologise Maheshwar.

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The Purusha Shuktam is dedicated to Lord Vishnu. This is confirmed in the last Part of the Purusha Shuktam which says

hrīś-ca te lakṣmīś-ca patnyau, ahorātre pārśve, nakṣatraṇi rüpam |

aśvinau vyāttam, iṣtaṃ maniṣāṇa, amuṃ maniṣāṇa,sarvaṃ maniṣāṇa ||22||

Hri (Bhudevi) and Lakṣmī are Your consorts. Day and night are Your two sides. The Constellations in the sky are Your own form. The Asvins are Your mouth. Being such, grant me whatever I desire, spiritual illumination, happiness here, and other objects of desire (particularly longevity, cattle and horses).

It clearly Mentions that Bhudevi and Laxmi Devi are your Consorts. They both are Consorts of Lord Vishnu. Sripad Ramanujaacharya has proved with various Pramans that The Hri refers to Bhudevi. And Devi Laxmi is clearly Mentioned. Great Acharyas like Sripad Madhvacharya, Sripad Ramanujaacharya and many great Acharyas have confirmed that it is dedicated to Lord Vishnu. Infact the Srimad Bhagvat Puran also clearly Mentions that it's dedicated to Lord Vishnu.

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Shiva is god of purusha suktam .its not vishnu or not the one who given birth to Ayappa. Apart from purusha suktam . Shiva is declared as param purusha of vedas.

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    Namaste welcome to HSE. While on the site, you can go through the help centre as well as Guidelines for new users answering. The rules insist on deriving the answer based on scriptures or great acharyas. Hope you have a good time on the site :)
    – Adiyarkku
    Aug 18 at 3:04
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A short and accurate answer to your question is in Vedas itself:

Yajurveda Taittiriya Aranyaka (10:24:1) - “purusho vai rudrah |”, which means, “Lord Rudra is the Purusha”.

enter image description here

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"As for Purusha Suktam it's definitely a hymn to Lord Rudra".

So Let’s Start Analysis on the basis of Various Upanishad. Let’s begin this Mysterious Secret with the Following Verse.:

सर्वमन्त्र-

सर्वयन्त्रसर्वतन्त्रसर्वपल्लवस्वरूपायेति ॐ नमः शिवायेत्युपनिषत् ॥

“Sarva Mantra Sarva Yantra Sarva Tantra Sarva Pallava Svaruupaya Iti Om Namah Shivaya

Om!” (Dattatreya Upanishad)

According to Vedas only Lord Shiva (Rudra) is standing alone rest are all his projections.

Svetasvatara Upanishad 3.2 & Atharvasiras Upanishad 5.2:

eko rudro na dvitIyAya tasmai ya imA.nllokAnIshata IshanIbhiH |

pratya~NjanAstiShThati sa.nchukochAntakAle sa.nsR^ijya vishvA bhuvanAni goptA |

“Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power. He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and upkeeps them”.

Atharvasiras Upanishad:

He who is Rudra, he alone is god. He is Brahma and we salute him again and again.

He who is Rudra, he alone is god. He is Vishnu and we salute him again and again.

He who is Rudra, he alone is God. He is truth and we salute him again and again.

He who is Rudra, he alone is God. He is everything and we salute him again and again.

That one and only one is Rudra, it is also Eeshana (the form of Lord Shiva with tuft and riding on a bull), it is also the ultimate God and it is also the lord of all things.

He is called “Para Brahmam (the ultimate reality)”, because though he is inside every thing, he is in and out of everything, he is the refuge of every thing and bigger than the big, he is inside every thing.

Purusha Sukta appeared first in Rig Veda 10.90. Narayana Maharshi was the 'Mantra Drashta'(seer) of the hymn. This Narayana Maharshi was later incarnated as Devaki putra Sri Krishna during Dwaparayuga. His counterpart Nara Maharshi was born as 'Arjuna'. By the grace of Lord Shiva, Narayana Mahrshi got the divine vision of Purusha. He was the first Human Rishi to realise the universal oneness and oneness of Atman in all beings. This non-dual knowledge made Narayana Rishi merge with Lord Shiva. Those who know Purusha will become, verily, like Purusha, the self of all beings.

Sathapatha Brahmana of Shukla yajurveda describes how Narayana Rishi became one with Purusha.

"puruṣo ha nārāyaṇo'kāmayata atitiṣṭheyaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtānyahamevedaṃ sarvaṃ syāmiti sa etam puruṣamedham pañcarātram yajñakratumapaśyattamāharattenāyajata teneṣṭvātyatiṣṭhatsarvāṇi bhūtānīdaṃ sarvamabhavadatitiṣṭhati sarvāṇi bhūtānīdaṃ sarvam bhavati ya evam vidvānpuruṣamedhena yajate yo vaitadevam veda" ( Sathapatha Brahmana 13:6:1:1)

Meaning:

"Purusha Narayana desired, 'Would that I overpassed all beings ! would that I alone were everything- here (this universe) !' He beheld this 'five days' sacrificial performance, the Purushamedha and took it and performed offering therewith ; and having performed offering therewith, he overpassed all beings, and became everything here. And, verily, he who, knowing this, performs the Purushamedha, or who even knows this, overpasses all beings, and becomes everything here."

In Mahabharata, Anushasana parva Bishma pitamaha says to Yudhistira:

Rudra bhakthya thu krishnena jagat vyaptham mahathmana, Tham prasadhya thadha devam bhadaryam kila bharatha.

Arthath priya harathwam cha sarva lokeshu vai yadhaa, Prapthavaaneva rajendra suvarnaakshan maheswaraath.

"The Krishna, due to his devotion to Supreme Lord Rudra, Has spread all over the universe, Oh Bharatha, Oh king of kings, After making Lord Shiva pleased by his penance in Bhadrinath, He has attained the state of being more dear, Than all the worlds and all aspects of knowledge."

In Mahabaratha, Lord Shiva says :

satyaśaucārjava tyāgais tapasā niyamena ca kṣāntyā bhaktyā ca dhṛtyā ca buddhyā ca vacasā tathā ( Mh Bhar 10.7.60)

yathāvad aham ārāddhaḥ kṛṣṇenākliṣṭakarmaṇā tasmād iṣṭatamaḥ kṛṣṇād anyo mama na vidyate ( Mh Bhar 10.07.61)

Meaning:

"With truth, purity, sincerity, resignation, ascetic austerities, vows, forgiveness, devotion, patience, thought, and word, I have been duly adored by Krishna of pure deeds. For this there is none dearer to me than Krishna".

Purusha Sukta :

sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt | sabhūmiṃ viśvato vṛtvātyatiṣṭhad daśāṅghulam || sahasra - Thousands; ( Thousand implies uncountable ) śīrṣā - of heads has; puruṣaḥ - the great being. sahasra -Thousands of aksha - eyes has he, sahasrapāt - and thousands of legs. sa - He vṛtvā - manifests bhūmiṃ - the world. ātyatiṣṭhat - e stands beyond daśāṅghulam - the count of ten fingers.

Meaning:

A thousand heads hath Puruṣa, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet. On every side pervading earth he fills a space ten fingers wide.

The Taittirya Aranyaka(10:24:1) of Yajur Veda clearly says Lord Rudra is 'Veda Purusha' (purusho vai rudrah) Kaushitaki Brahmana (6:1:13) of Rig Veda calls Lord Rudra as "sahasrakha sahasrapat". ( tata.udatiṣṭhat.sahasra.akṣaḥ.sahasra.pāt). The same thing is confirmed in Svetasvatara Upanishad.

viśvataś cakṣur uta viśvato-mukho viśvato-bāhur uta viśvatas-pāt saṃ6 bāhubhyāṃ dhamati sampatatrair dyāv-ābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ ( Sv Up III-3) "His eyes are everywhere, His faces everywhere, His arms everywhere, everywhere His feet. He it is who endows men with arms, birds with feet and wings and men likewise with feet. Having produced heaven and earth, this God (deva ekaḥ) remains as their non—dual manifestation.

According to purusha shuktam of yajurveda.:

"Hri and Lakshmi(Sri) are thy (Purusha Rudra's) wives: each side of thee are Day and Night."

According to Uma Samhita of Shiva Puran :

"Satī and Pārvatī are Umā's direct incarnations (Rudranī). The first primordial Śakti of Śiva the great Brahman, who is called Umā, is the great mother of the three worlds. Her two incarnations — Satī and Haimavatī, have been heard, O intelligent Sūta. Please mention Her other incarnations (Mahākālikā; Mahālakṣmī; Mahāsarasvatī) too. (Umā Saṁhitā: 45:3-4)"

"Mahākālikā; Mahālakṣmī; Mahāsarasvatī are Umā's incarnation as warrior goddess. According to Śiva Purāṇa, Bhavānī Umā is the source of these three forms Navārṇa Caṇḍikā of Devī Māhātmyam, hence both Mahālakṣmī (not to be confused with Viṣṇupatni Lakṣmī) as well as Bhavānī Umā are identified with one another by Śiva Purāṇa. (Umā Saṁhitā: Chapter 45-48)"

Mahalakshmi is another name of Goddess Parvati. Who is the wife of lord Shiva. Real name is Ambabai Mahalakshmi she is Goddess Parvati. Kollapur Ambabai Mahalakshmi its Shaktipeet of Goddess Sati / Parvati not a wife of vishnu. Even devi kamla (lakshmi) one of the 12 mahavidhyas is a form of devi uma whose husband is lord kamal mahadev (vishnu). .

Brahmanda Purana refers Acyuta as the brother of Sridevi . Sridevi here refers to Lalita i.e. Parvati.

  1. After bowing down to the lotus-eyed Acyuta, the brother of Śridevī, he earnestly pleaded for his prepctual residence at Kāñcī.

The Chamunda Mantra of Maa Kali/Durga which is a beejaaksharas (root/seed) mantra.:

"Om aim hrim srim klim chamundaye viche"

Om = lord shiva of creator, preserver and destroyer

Aim = goddess saraswati of knowledge and wisdom

Shreem = goddess lakshmi of wealth and luck

Hreem = goddess pravati of divine mother

Kleem = goddess maha kali of love and desire

Chamundaye = The slayer of demons chand and mund

Viche = shield us.

So here we can see all these names belongs to maa durga/kali she is also called as "sri" and maa parvati as "hri". ‘Hreem’ is Shakta Pranava and ‘Hree’ is an aspect of goddess Tripurasundari devi (Consort of Shiva). Lalita Sahasranama Stotram says, “Hreemkarini” is goddess Lalita Tripurasudnari. On similar lines ‘Mahalakshmi’ is another name of same Tripurasundari devi. Here this Shuktam is totally dedicated to (and discusses about) the supreme being. who is Lord Rudra himself and no one else.

So from above we can conclude that purusha Rudra's two wives are maa Parvati and maa Kali/Durga. One is day (Maa Parvati as she is calm and giving in nature) and other is night (Maa Kali who is angrier and fierce in nature).

Natsyashastra 3(86,87) .:

"let mothers such as Sarasvati, Dhriti, Medha, Hri, Sri, Lakshmi protect you and give you success."

As you can see here sometimes, sri is only refered to maa durga and not maa Lakshmi and hri always to maa parvati.

Just like lord vishnu is called shrivatsa (the one with shree/lakshmi in his chest), lord shiva is also called as shrikantha (the one with shree/durga in his throat).

Okay without wasting time, let's see the Pradhānika Rahasya of Durgā Saptaśati, which describes Her as follows.:

“That Trigunātmikā Mahālakśmi is the Supreme Goddess and the source of all creation. Only She pervades and holds the creation in visible or invisible form.” ( Pradhānika Rahasya Verse 4).

“ Wielding in Her four arms, Mātulinga (citron), Gadā (Mace),Kheta(shield) and Pānpātram (drinking vessel) while having the emblems of snake, Lingam and Yoni (ShivaLingam) on Her crown"

Furthermore, It is clearly mentioned in Saptaśati to worship her with wine and meat which is totally prohibited in VishnuPatni Lakshmi Puja...

"Worship Her with bloodful sacrifice, meat and wine."(Vaikritika Rahasya Verse 28)

So these explain that Kolhāpura Ambābāi is verily Mahālakśmi of Dēvi Māhatmyam only.

If some still say why it's not written MahaLakshmi then I will say it was also written that it was Aditya whose wifes are hei and shree. Because sometimes vedas have a mystic way of saying things. But still let me clear that doubt also.

According to Rudra Hridaya Upanishad.:

“All the mobile and immobile creation of this universe, is filled up with Uma and Rudra. The Vyakta is Sri Uma, and the Avyakta is Lord Siva."

"Do Kirtan of His name, ‘Rudra’, ‘Rudra’. By singing like this, the hallowed name of this great Lord, all your sins will be destroyed. Rudra is man. Uma is woman. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Brahma. Uma is Sarasvati. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Vishnu. Uma is Lakshmi. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Sun(Aditya). Uma is shadow. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is moon (Soma). Uma is star. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is day. Uma is night. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Yajna. Uma is Vedi. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Agni, Uma is Svaha. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Veda. Uma is Sastra. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is tree. Uma is creeper. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is scent. Uma is flower. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is meaning. Uma is word. Prostrations to Him and Her. Rudra is Linga. Uma is Pitha. Prostrations to Him and Her." ( Rudra hridaya upanishad ).

Now, According to Atharva Veda.:

sò 'rajyata táto rājanyò 'jāyata ( AV 15-8-1)

ie., Eka Vratya(shiva) was filled with passion: from him sprang the Rajanya.

The Hymn further says :

áto vái bráhma ca kṣatráṃ cód atiṣṭhatāṃ ...........( AV 15:10:3) ie., From him(Eka Vratya), verily, sprang Priesthood(bráhma) and Royalty(kṣatráṃ).

So Atharvana Veda clearly says that the chatur-varnas spring from Lord Mahadeva who is Veda Purusha.

Even Shiva Purana confirms it as follows.: (Shiv Puran Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa, Chapter 56.)... Banasura's prayers to Lord Shiva. It goes as follows.:

  1. O lord, your hairs are the herbs and plants, your tresses the clouds, your eyes the three attributes. You are the Puruṣa, the soul of all.

  2. They call Brāhmaṇa your mouth, Kṣatriya your arms, Vaiśya your thighs and Śūdra your feet.[2]

  3. O lord Śiva, you alone deserve to be adored by all living beings. A person worshipping you certainly derives liberation.

  4. O lord, the man who forsakes you, the favourite Ātman, for the adverse objects of sense, swallows poison forsaking nectar.

  5. Viṣṇu, Brahmā, the gods and the sages of pure mind, in every respect resort to you, the favourite lord.

enter image description here

Lord shiva is higher than virat and beyond hiranyagarbha.

According to Manusmriti 1.19 Purusha is made of seven Mahapurushas.

These are Indra, Shakti, Brahma, vishnu, shiva, shani and Yama.

We all know that shiva shakti are one only where as shani is Shiva's deciple n shiva is god of Yama in the form of mahakala. Indra also goes to lord shiva whenever he is in trouble.

“somaḥ pavate janitā matīnāṃ janitā divo janitā pṛthivyāḥ | janitāghnerjanitā sūryasya janitendrasya janitota viṣṇoḥ |” (Rig Veda IX.96.5) “Father of sacred chants, Soma( Sa+Uma=With Maa Uma=Lord Siva) flows onwards, the Father of the Earth, Father of the Celestial region: Father of Agni, the creator of Surya, the Father who gave birth to Indra and Vishnu

As for Brahma and Vishnu, As said by lord Krishna himself in Mahabharatam.:

"O the lord of lord! Myself (Krishna/Vishnu), brahma, kapila, ananta (sheSha), all the valiant sons of brahma who conquered over the internal enemies - all are created from you (Shiva). Hence you are the lord of all. Hence you, the lord of all, are worthy of praise."

“iishaanaH sarvavidyaanaamiishvaraH sarvabhuutaanaaM |
brahmaadhipatirbrahmaNo.adhipatirbrahmaa shivo me astu sadaashivom.h |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.21.1) “May the Supreme who is the ruler of all knowledge, controller of all created beings, the preserver of the Vedas and the one overlord of Hiranyagarbha, be benign to me. I am the Sadasiva described thus and denoted by Pranava”.

Well, let’s finally look at a verse from Upanishad which also speaks the same truth calling Mahadeva as the father of Vedas.

“prabhu.n vareNyaM pitaraM mahesha.n yo brahmaaNa.n vidadhaati tasmai | vedaa.nshcha sarvaanprahiNoti chaagrya.n ta.n vai prabhuM pitara.n devataanaam.h | mamaapi vishhNorjanaka.n devamiiDyaM yo.antakaale sarvalokaansa.njahaara |” (Sharabha Upanishad 2-3) “I am saluting that primeval God who is the Lord, who is the best, who is the father of the world, who is the greatest among gods, who has created Brahma, who gave all Vedas to Brahma in the beginning, who is the father of Vishnu and other devas, who merits praise, and who at the time of deluge destroys the world. He is the only one who is greater than every body, who is the best and who rules over others”.

So it proves that lord shiva is the only purusha of purusha suktam rest all are his forms or subordinate.

He is the Origin of everything and everyone so called “pranava”.

Some can also say it is Lord Hari-Hara with maa Hri as Hara’s wife and sri as Hari's wife. So it's basically the Lord Rudra and his forms Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma who are also called as Purusha along with other dieties. Like Surya, Somah, Agni, Vayu, Indra, etc.

Tattiriya Aranyaka states clearly that Lord Shiva and Maa Shakti (Ardhanareeshwara) are the param-brahmans, purusha, truth, and righteousness.

“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |

uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)

“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness (rita) and Truth (satyam), is the androgynous purusha the Umamaheshvara (or Ardhanareeshwara), dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste (having semen rised up) and possessing uneven eyes (three eyed) . Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe, or whose form is the universe”.

Lord Shiva is the supreme Purusha stated in Vedas. There is nothing beyond Purusha since Purusha (Rudra) is the Para-Brahman.

“ekaakshara.n tvakshare.atraasti some sushhumnaayaa.n cheha dR^iDhii sa ekaH |

tva.n vishvabhuurbhuutapatiH puraaNaH parjanya eko bhuvanasya goptaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 1)

“praaNaH prasuutirbhuvanasya yonirvyaapta.n tvayaa ekapadena vishvam.h |

tva.n vishvabhuuryonipaaraH svagarbhe kumaara eko vishikhaH sudhanvaa |” (Ekakshara Upanishad 3)

“Thou art the one Imperishable in the Imperishable, conjoint with Uma. As known by means of Susumna, here (on the empirical plane), the one firm (Principle art Thou). Thou art the ancient source of the world, the Lord of beings; Thou the Parjanya (the Principle of life-giving water), the Protector of the world. Thou art the Principle of life; Thou the manifestation (the manifested world); Thou the source of the world; by a quarter hast Thou pervaded this world. Thou art the world’s birth, the cause, the life supreme, and the child in the womb armed with the excellent bow and arrow.

Note the above verse from Ekakshara Upanishad which clearly states that from Lord Rudra’s one quarter only this entire creation emerged. This is the same thing stated in Purusha Suktam of Rig Veda about Bhagwan Rudra as follows.

“tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ | tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi |” (Rig Veda 10:90:4)

“Three quarters of his are beyond all this; all of this creation is but from one quarter of him. Again and again, all that eats, and that eats not appeared from this one quarter of His.”

Even the Skhambha Suktam which is a hymn on Lord Shiva’s Jwala-Linga states the same.

“yátra skambháḥ prajanáyan purāṇáṃ vyávartayat | ékaṃ tád áṅgaṃ skambhásya purāṇám anusáṃviduḥ |” (Atharva Veda 10:7:26)

“Where Skambha (Agni-Linga) generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha (Linga) as the Ancient World.

From above verses it should be clear by now that Purusha of Vedas is Rudra, hence Rudra is the Brahman above whom there is nothing superior. Therefore, thinking (of the Supreme Shiva) with a mind not running to other objects and endued with abstraction in the form of uninterrupted application, one goes, unto the Divine, resplendent and Supreme male Being – Purusha (Shiva).

Let’s just finish it with a bang.:

“purusho vai rudrah |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10:24:1) “Lord Rudra is the Purusha of Vedas”.

Even in Ishwara Gita of Lord Shiva which is the real Bhagwat Git Lord Shiva himself said that among all the suktam, he is the purusha Shuktam. .According to Ishwara Gita chapter 7.:

सावित्री सर्वजप्यानां गुह्यानां प्रणवोऽस्म्यहम् । सूक्तानां पौरुषं सूक्तं ज्येष्ठसाम च सामसु ॥ ७.१३॥ Meaning: - Among all the Japa (chantings) know me to be Savitri Mantra, among the confidential (elements) know me to be Pranava (Omkara). Among suktas (of Veda) know me to be Purush Sukta, among Sama (Veda) know me to ne Jyesth sAman.

Though it can be used for other Devtas also including lord vishnu and other male deities or ishta devtas. As All are one as Non-Dual (Advaitam) form.

sivo guruh sivo vedah siva devah sivah prabhuh sivo'smyaham sivah sarvam sivadanyanna kimcana ( iv-32 Varaha upanishad)

Meaning: Shiva alone is Guru; Shiva alone is Vedas; Shiva alone is Lord; Shiva alone is I (Varaha Vishnu); Shiva alone is All. There is none other than Shiva

For more info visit here...

I think it's more than enough to prove my point and answer to this question.

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Interestingly, Most references are not mentioning this..

From Prtahsmarami sthothram by Adi Shankaracharya

This is The Physical Supreme Purusha

प्रातर्नमामि तमसः परमर्कवर्णं पूर्णं सनातनपदं पुरुषोत्तमाख्यम् ।
यस्मिन्निदं जगदशेषमशेषमूर्तौ रज्ज्वां भुजङ्गम इव प्रतिभासितं वै ॥३॥

Praatar-Namaami Tamasah Param-Arka-Varnnam
Puurnnam Sanaatana-Padam Purussottama-[A]akhyam |
Yasminn-Idam Jagad-Ashessam-Ashessa-Muurtau
Rajjvaam Bhujanggama Iva Pratibhaasitam Vai ||3||

Meaning:

3.1: In the Early Morning I Salute That Darkness (signifying without any Form) which is of the nature of Supreme Illumination,
3.2: Which is Purna (Full), Which is the Primordial Abode, and Which is called Purushottama (the Supreme Purusha),
3.3: In Whom this endless World is settled endlessly (i.e. from the beginning of creation),
3.4: ... and (this endless World) appear like a Snake over the Rope (of the Primordial Essence).

The other two references in that stothram are intangible Atman & the Parah Brahman as Neti Neti

Both stay 10 fingers away:-)

So who’s Shiva & Vishnu, Who is male & Female? The latter parts of Purusha Suktam & references to caste in Rig 10.90 were not original. There are variations in Sanskrit. Many fingers were in collusion :-)

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Short answer to your question is Rudra. Long answer with the explanation waits ahead have a nice time reading I took a considerable amount of time to write this answer.

I) INTRODUCTION:

Purusha Shuktam or Hymn to the great Purusha is a very important part of the Vedas. It occurs in the Rig Veda Mandal 10 Shuktam 90, the Shukla Yajur Veda Mandal 31 Shuktam 11, the Krishna Yajur Veda Taitreya Aranyak Prapatakha 3 Anuvak 12, the Sama Veda Gana 617-621, and the Atharva Veda Mandal 19 Shuktam 6. The Purusha Shuktam as the name indicates is a Hymn in praise of the great Purusha who is stated to be the eternal creator. What makes this Shuktam most important is its direct mention of origin of Varna pratha which is one of the foundations of Sanatan Dharma along with describing philosophical concepts. The importance of the Purusha Shuktam is quite visible for all the Vedas contains it though it's version varies slightly amongst the Vedas. This Shuktam is especially important in various Hindu sects revolving around their respective istha or main deity as different sects interpret the Shuktam in their own ways to prove superiority of their respective isthas as the Purusha Shuktam being essentially dedicated to the original creator and greatest amongst all will make the deity superior to whom its dedicated. The post today is about this specific topic to interpret the Purusha Shuktam present in the Vedas and see to whom they really are dedicated.

II) RIG VEDA:

Prominent amongst all scriptures are the Vedas and among them the most important is the Rig Veda. The Purusha Shuktam in the Rig Veda is present in its Mandal 10 Shuktam 90 and has a total of 16 Mantra (verses). Just like the other Purusha Shuktam, the one present in the Rig Veda begins with a description of the Purusha stating him to posess thousand eyes, heads and limbs however this is the common element in all the versions of this Hymn, what we are concerned with here is to whom is the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig Veda dedicated. The most prominent reference present in the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig Veda is it's 5th verse where it is stated that Purusha created Viraj and was again born through Viraj. Viraj means the shining world and is also called Hiranyagarbha by the Upanishads. This Hiranyagarbha is Bramha and is responsible for creation as per the Rig Veda Mandal 10 Shuktam 121. Hence it can be stated that the self existing Purusha who existed already before Bramha and others himself took his birth from Bramha after creating him, and as per the 3rd verse of the Purusha Shuktam as soon as he was born he spread out over the earth in all the directions. ie., he multiplied and new species evolved. This is a clear indication of the fact that the Purusha here is Shiva who was born from Bramha as Rudra the Shrimad Bhagvatam Skand 3 Adhay 12 verse 10-14 and the Shiv Puran Rudra Samhita Sristi Khand Adhay 15 slok 52-58 states this exact same incident. There is yet another part in the Purusha Shuktam common to all the Vedas about the Purusha creating various devtas from himself which yet again confirms clearly that Purusha of the Vedas is Shiva or Rudra, a point which shall be clear when we come to the Shuktam of the Atharva Veda.

III) SHUKLA YAJUR VEDA:

The Shukla Yajur Veda is of great importance in scriptures for it is a Veda and especially because it is the most extensive scripture on the sacred ritual of yajna. The Purusha Shuktam contained in the Shukla Yajur Veda is slightly different from the others as it has a total of 22 verses however the first part of it is the same regarding description of Purusha. What helps us to identify the deity who is the Purusha of this Purusha Shuktam is its verses 14-16 which describes a specific ritual know as the Purushamedha yajna. The Satpath Bramhan which is under the Shukla Yajur Veda is a manual that gives detailed instructions to various yajna listed in the samhita itself and also is vital to know the meaning and authentic interpretation of the various verses in the Veda itself. There are scriptures known as Bramhan granths which are essentially handbook for yajna they contained exact guidance to perform various yajnas and their instructions must be followed in this case. The Satpath Bramhan which is under the Shukla Yajurveda (the veda which contains most of the information related to yajnas) states in Khanda 9 Adhay 1 Bramhan 1 slok 6 that Rudra is the one with the thousand heads, eyes and limbs. An objection may be raised that it is in the same Satpath Bramhan Khanda 13 Adhay 6 Bramhan 2 slok 12 that Narayan is stated to be Purusha however even if that is the case it doesn't disqualify Rudra from being the Purusha of the Vedas as firstly because him being the Purusha of the Purusha Shuktam is already established in the other scriptures and secondly because this very Satpath Bramhan in Khand 9 (mentioned earlier) states Rudra to be the Purusha; also the scriptures can have no contradiction hence it must be understood from these two apparently contradictory verses that both Vishnu and Rudra have been given equal respect and same position, something which is ordained by the scriptures themselves a few reference of which are the Skand Upanishad slokas 8-9, also Shiva and Vishnu both are stated to posess the same amount of power (already made a detailed post on this will share on demand) hence even though there are references to show that the Purusha Shuktam of the Shukla Yajur Veda refers to Narayan it must be noted that it refers to Shiva as well. Also, the slok 5 of this Shuktam is the same one present in the Rig Veda Purusha Shuktam and hence in the same way as has been stated earlier in explaining the 5th slok of the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig Veda is another fact that the Purusha Shuktam of the Shukla Yajur Veda is dedicated to Rudra.

It must however be noted that in the 22nd verse which is the last verse of the Purusha Shuktam present in the Shukla Yajur Veda states Purusha to be Lakshmipati which is a clear indication of the Purusha of Shukla Yajur Veda being Vishnu however, taking into consideration the other verses related to this very Samhita it is clear that as stated earlier in this particular one both Shiva and Vishnu are the Purusha and who must he considered the Purusha and when depends on context in which the Shuktam is interpreted. An objection may be raised on this point using the 22nd verse that exclusively mentions the word Laxmipati which will be used by the opponents to state this Shuktam is exclusively dedicated to Vishnu for he alone is Laxmipati however there is yet another point that must be taken to considered; the Nirukta defines laxmi as meaning desire in Adhay 4 slok 10. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Adhay 4 Bramhan 4 slok 6-7 states that the organs and the heart is the center of desire (a fact stated in the most prominent amongst Vaishnava texts the Bhagvad Gita Adhay 2 slok 62 as well) and states in Adhay 3 Bramhan 9 slok 4 that Rudra in his ekadasha Rudra form controls the organs and mind hence is also controller of desires. Shiva in various other forms such as the Panchabramh and the Asthamurti also preside over the organs and senses hence controlling desires as its master (I have made detailed post on the various set manifestations of Shiva if someone asks I shall share) hence Laxmipati or overlord of laxmi also refers to Shiva in this context which yet again shows that this particular Purusha Shuktam present in the Shukla Yajur Veda can either refer to Shiva or Vishnu depending upon the context in which the Shuktam is interpreted.

Another objection may be raised that apart from Laxmipati this 22nd verse of the Purusha Shuktam of the Shukla Yajur Veda also refers to the Purusha as Pati of Bhudevi and since Vishnu in Varaha avtar is husband of Bhudevi hence the verse refers to Narayan and not Rudra however there are many defects in this claim. Firstly Varaha is an amsh avatar of Vishnu and not Narayan Swaroop hence the claim is deemed invalid. Secondly, the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (which is part of the Shukla Yajur Veda itself and hence no controversies regarding its application to determine context of verses in question here can be raised) states in Adhay 2 Bramhan 4 slok 10 that the Vedas were created out of the breath of Ishvar which means they came out naturally without intervention of any being and hence are apurusheya or in simple terms authorless; being an authorless document created without intervention of any being they can have no defects. It is also stated in the Bramh Sutra Adhay 1 Pada 3 Sutra 29 (the Bramha Sutras were uthored by Vyasa himself and stated to be created first by Krishna as per the Bhagvad Gita Adhay 15 slok 15 and hence no objections about its authority can be raised by vaishnavs) and the Mahabharata Santi Parva Adhay 232 slok 25 that the scriptures such as the Vedas and Upanishads are free from defects and have no contradiction; all these points states one thing that the Hindu scriptures have no contradiction amongst them. However if we are to interpret the 22nd slok to denote Vishnu the statement of Hindu scriptures having no contradiction shall become invalid and that would state that they have defect and hence prove the scriptures themselves to be lies however that shall not only be blasphemy but would also be falsehood as the Hindu scriptures indeed can have no contradiction. This becomes clear when we view these verses in another context; the term pati does not always mean husband but also means ruler. When the word pati is judged in this context it becomes clear that the verse in question indeed denotes Rudra as he is stated to be the ruler and controller of earth (and hence bhudevi as well for the earth is presided by Bhudevi as per the Atharva Veda Mandal 12 Shuktam 1) as Sarva in his Asthamurti form as per the Shiv Puran Satrudra Samhita Adhay 2 slok 3-5 and as Sadyojata in his Panchabramh form as per the Shiv Puran Vayaviya Samhita Uttar Bhag Adhay 3 slok 15 and the Linga Puran Uttar Bhag Adhay 14 slok 25. This is enough to not only rule out the possibilities of contradiction but also to prove that Rudra indeed is referred to as the Purusha even in the Purusha Shuktam of the Shukla Yajur Veda as he is stated to be the presiding deity of the earth element and controller of the earth and hence bhudevi.

IV) KRISHNA YAJUR VEDA:

Unknown to many is yet a part of the Yajur Veda known as the Krishna Yajur Veda. How the Krishna Yajur Veda got its name is described in the Shrimad Bhagvatam Skand 12 Adhay 6 slok 62-74 where it is stated that once Rishi Yajnavalkya was cursed by his Guru Rishi Vaisampayana for his crude behavior and was asked to return all the knowledge of the Vedas he had received; upon being ordered to do so Rishi Yajnavalkya vomited out the mantras he had learnt, the mantras being covered in his blood looked black in color due to the dried blood thus earning it the name of Krishna (black) Yajur Veda, after this Yajnavalkya did tapasya to please Surya and earned mantras of Yajur Veda which was unknown to others, this part earned from Surya being called Shukla Yajur Veda because of its color being white. This incident is crucial for the article as it clearly shows the significance of the Krishna Yajur Veda which became black due to blood of one of the most revered rishis of that time. The Krishna Yajur Veda especially in its Taitreya sakha has a distinct Shivaite character however since it is a Veda, attributing it to one particular sect shall not be good. The Krishna Yajur Veda contains the Purusha Shuktam in its Taitreya Aranyak Prapatakha 3 Anuvak 12 and is slightly smaller in size than its Shukla counterpart as it has only 18 mantras. The Shuktam begins like the other Purusha Shuktam present in other Vedas by describing Purusha as the being with thousand heads, eyes and limbs however a distinct features present in this particular Purusha Shuktam and another reference present in the very text of the Taitreya Aranyak are proves of the Purusha Shuktam of the Taitreya Aranyak being dedicated to Shiva. Firstly the slok 5 of this Shuktam is the same one present in the Rig Veda Purusha Shuktam and hence in the same way as has been stated earlier in explaining the 5th slok of the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig Veda is a prove of the Purusha Shuktam of the Krishna Yajur Veda is dedicated to Rudra. Secondly, the most vital reference present in the Taitreya Aranyak itself is key to proving that the Purusha Shuktam of the Krishna Yajur Veda is dedicated to Rudra as it is stated in the Taitreya Aranyak Prapatakha 10 Anuvak 24 slok 1 states clearly that Rudra is the one who is stated to be Purusha of the Vedas and whether one wishes or not to view the Purusha Shuktam of the other Vedas in light of this verse, they can not deny the fact that Rudra is the Purusha of the Purusha Shuktam of the Krishna Yajur Veda as the very Taitreya Aranyak that contains the Purusha Shuktam of the Krishna Yajur Veda states clearly that Rudra is the Purusha and even if someone objects to applying verses of the Taitreya Aranyak directly stating Rudra to be the Purusha in other texts they can not do the same here for here the verses are from the same text.

V) SAMA VEDA:

The Sama Veda is stated to be the Veda of melodies and contains mostly mantras of the Rig Veda with the only difference that here the mantras are in format of a rhythmic song. The Purusha Shuktam contained in the Sama Veda is slightly different from others for two reasons, firstly it unlike its other counterparts is in a Gana or song format and secondly because it contains only 5 sloks which makes it the shortest amongst all the versions of the Purusha Shuktam. This particular Purusha Shuktam begins like the others with describing the Purusha as the being posessing a thousand eyes, heads and limbs. What makes this Purusha Shuktam different from others is not simply the fact that it has only five verses but rather because the 5th slok at which it ends is the same as the 5th slok present in the other Purusha Shuktam and describes the same incident as has been stated in slok 5 of the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig Veda and hence in the same way as has been stated earlier in explaining the 5th slok of the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig Veda it is proven that the Purusha Shuktam of the Sama Veda is dedicated to Rudra. Also, while the Sama Veda has only five sloka there are no other verses amongst these five that contains information that can be crucial to identify the deity who is stated to be the Purusha and only the 5th sloka that has that information proves Rudra to be the Purusha of this Purusha Shuktam as well.

VI) ATHARVA VEDA:

Finally we come to the Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda. Before I begin to analyze this particular Purusha Shuktam a question must be answered regarding the source text itself, while there are many half witted people who claim the Atharva Veda to be a latter addition and often say it is not a Veda at all, the Manusmriti which is the most prominent amongst all Dharmashastra and is stated to be the authority in Dharma in the Krishna Yajur Veda Taitreya Samhita Khand 2 Prapatakha 2 Anuvak 10 slok 2 (and none of those who claim Atharva Veda to be unauthentic or new can say that for the Krishna Yajur Veda as it has already been stated in the point IV with proves that the Krishna Yajur Veda was revealed even before its Shukla counterpart), this Manusmriti in Adhay 11 slok 33 states "श्रुतीरथर्वाङ्गिरसीः" which clearly states the text revealed to Rishis Atharvan and Angiras to be a Shruti (Veda) and these two Rishis being the seer of the Atharva Veda refutes false claims of it being not a Veda. Now, having refuted the claims that may be made about authority of the Atharva Veda we come to the main subject that is being dealt with in the article. The Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda contains a total of 16 mantras (sloks) however what makes this Purusha Shuktam different from its counterparts is that the sloka which appears as the 5th sloka in the other versions of the Purusha Shuktam appears in a slightly different form and as the 9th sloka in the Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda however the meaning of the slok stays same. Hence it can be stated that in the same way as has been stated earlier in explaining the 5th verse of the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig Veda is a prove that the Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda is dedicated to Rudra as the 5th slok of the other variants and the 9th slok of the Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda is same.

Apart from this, there are also many more proves that state the Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda is dedicated to Rudra and since the references that shall be provided are essentially from the same text which is the Atharva Veda hence the objection of misinterpretation can not be raised as all the references provided shall be of the same text. Also it has already been proven in the other points and in the previous paragraph as well that the Purusha Shuktam is dedicated to Rudra, this paragraph is simply to add more references to the fact. In the Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda in sloka 7-8 it is stated that the various deities were born from various parts of the Purusha, a fact that had already been stated in details in a previous Shuktam of the Atharva Veda itself, in the Atharva Veda Mandal 15 Shuktam 14 to be precise. The description of Rudra dividing himself into various deities and going in various directions to do different works as stated in the Atharva Veda Mandal 15 Shuktam 14 is the exact same as stated in the Atharva Veda Mandal 19 Shuktam 6 (Purusha Shuktam) which only makes it clearer that Rudra is the deity of the Purusha Shuktam.

VII) CONCLUSION:

From the above points it is clear that though slightly different from each other, the Purusha Shuktam present in the Vedas refers to the same entity Shiva as Purusha who is born as Rudra as clear from the 5th sloka of the Purusha Shuktam of the Rig, Shukla Yajur, Krishna Yajur and the Sama Veda and from the 9th sloka of the Purusha Shuktam of the Atharva Veda. Another reference worth quoting in the conclusion point is the Ishvar Gita Adhay 7 slok 13 where Shiva states clearly that among Shuktams of Vedas he is the Purusha Shuktam.

Objection may be raised that Krishna states in the Bhagvad Gita Adhay 9 slok 17 he is giver of the Vedas however the same has been stated about Shiva as well. The Atharva Veda Mandal 15 is entirely dedicated to Rudra states Rudra to be the source of everything including the Vedas while the Svetasvatara Upanishad which is dedicated to Rudra clearly states in Adhay 6 slok 8 that the Vedas originated from Rudra while it states in Adhay 3 slok 2 that Rudra is the source of everything (what must be kept in mind is that this Svetasvatara Upanishad is related to the Shukla Yajur Veda which is coincidentally the text who's Purusha Shuktam has some remote possibilities of hinting that Narayan is Purusha however the verses quoted of the Svetasvatara Upanishad only proves that the instance of Narayan being Purusha is only contextual and occurs in one incident while Rudra is the actual Purusha of the Shukla Yajur Veda as well).

Another objection may be raised that the description of Purusha and Vishwarup of Krishna as stated in the Bhagvad Gita Adhay 11 is same however Shiva is also stated to have Vishwarup description of which is same as stated in various scriptures to quote a few references are the Krishna Yajur Veda Taitreya Samhita Khand 4 Prapatakha 5 Anuvak 4 slok 6, the Ishvar Gita Adhay 5 slok 8-11 and the Shiva Gita Adhay 7 (a notable fact must be mentioned that the Shiva Gita is part of the Padma Puran which is a canonical Vaishnava text and hence no objections can be raised by vaishnavs in regards of Shiva's ability to show Vishwarup). Also, as mentioned earlier the Krishna Yajur Veda Taitreya Aranyak Prapatakha 10 Anuvak 24 slok 1 states clearly that Rudra is the Purusha mentioned in the Purusha Shuktam while the Satpath Bramhan states Narayan to be Purusha only in context of the Purushamedha yajna in Khanda 13 Adhay 6 Bramhan 2 slok 12, even this Satpath Bramhan states Rudra to be the actual Purusha of the Veda in Khanda 9 Adhay 1 Bramhan 1 slok 6 except for the Purushamedha yajna where Narayan is Purusha.

It has also been stated already that through various references it is proven that the Purusha of the Purusha Shuktam is Rudra and not Vishnu with the only exception being in the Shukla Yajur Veda where Purusha of the Purusha Shuktam denotes Vishnu only under the exclusive circumstance of the Purushamedha yajna and except for the exceptional condition of the Purushamedha yajna even this Shuktam is dedicated to Rudra. The case of Rudra and Vishnu having the same features such as Vishwarup and being the source of Vedas is only because they are of the same level in terms of power as has been stated in the Skanda Upanishad slok 8-9, however this does not change the fact that the Purusha Shuktam is dedicated to Rudra as has been proven through the earlier points. However before I conclude the article one thing must be made clear that this article does not aim to demean Vishnu as that would be an act of dev ninda and also differentiating between Hari and Hara with the bid to establish supremacy of one over the other is a sin as per scriptures and must be avoided; the objective of this article is to simply interpret the Purusha Shuktam and give a clear idea about who is the Purusha mentioned in the Purusha Shuktam of the Vedas. Hence it can be concluded from the various scriptures and proves that Purusha of the Vedas in general and of the Purusha Shuktam in particular is Rudra and Narayan (Vishnu) assumes the role of Purusha only during the Purusha Yajna and during revelations of his Vishwarup and is not the Purusha of the Purusha Shuktam under normal circumstances.

JAI VEERBHADRA JAI SHANKARACHARYA

Credits of the writing and compilation belongs to: Jalandhar.

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  • Will you please quote instead of paraphrasing? That can be misleading, for example here the full quotes are of a story similar to what you said and also paraphrases similarly. However, it is clear from the quote that while Vaishampayana did not intend to kill his nephew, he probably did intentionally not meet the appointment he knew would cause the death of a Brahmana. hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/14236/… Nov 23 at 17:36
  • I have mentioned the exact references for all to check if anyone finds anything misleading they are free to counter. Also the part about Vishampayana was given simply to state how Krishna Yajur Veda got its name it was strictly for giving a clear idea about the document itself and not of the Purusha Shuktam. Nov 24 at 5:05
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The deity of the Puruṣa Suktam is left vague, which is probably a sign it is controversial. In fact it is a matter of fact it is left ambiguous, because the Mahabharata goes out of its way to draw attention to this, probably specifically for the Purusha Suktam.

Vaisampayana said, In the speculations of the Sankhya and the Yoga systems many Purushas have been spoken of, O jewel of Kuru's race. Those that follow these systems do not accept that there is but one Purusha in the universe. 1 In the same manner in which the many Purushas are said to have one origin in the Supreme Purusha, it may be said that this entire

Anyway, the best guess is Kāma. This is because Puruṣa is described like this:

From him Virāj was born; again Puruṣa from Virāj was born.

The only person I could find a reference to giving rise to the birth of Virāj, who is given a name, is Kāma. Why they decided to name a female Virāj is beyond me.

She, Kāma! she is called the Cow, thy daughter, she who is named Vāk and Virāj by sages

Kāma also makes sense, because Puruṣa is described as a victim of sacrifice and Kāma sacrificed his body to fill Śiva with desire. While many believe it did not work I have not seen a refrence that actually says that. Kāma also survived giving him the name Anaṅga, without a body, fitting with 3/4 of Puruṣa surviving. Also, because of Kāma's sacrifice, lots of stuff was born as described in the Puruṣa Suktam. Possibly some of the latter stuff is literally about Śiva and his children and metaphorically attributing it to Kāma. Most importantly attributing it to Kāma is controversial, which gives the writers of the Vedas a motive to not make this clear.

https://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m12/m12c050.htm https://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv10090.htm https://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/av/av09002.htm

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