It has been proven through archaeological discovery of seals and artifacts that the Indus Valley Civilization traded with the civilizations of Mesopotamia, such as Sumer.

Sumer and the IVC existed at around 3000 BCE. This is during the time of the Mahabharata.

So do any Hindu scriptures mention any foreign civilization's name that could possibly be referring to Sumer or other Mesopotamian civilizations?


In the Atharvana Samhitaa of the Haa-haa-raa-va Tantra there is a Guhya Kaalii kavach by Kaala Bhairava which starts with the words " Sumeru uttare shringe deva deva jagadguru...." The colophon states " Iti shri Haa-haa-raa-va Tantre uttara prishtha sthita Kaalabhairava nirmitam....." At present, the Atharvana samhitaa is not available in full. The Saptamukhi Hanumatkavacham is also attributed to the Atharvana Samhitaa and there is also a deity called Atharvana Bhadra Kaalii.

  • Sumeru or Meru does not seem to be related to Sumer. Meru is a sanskrit word and so is sumeru!
    – user17294
    May 4 '19 at 8:54
  • In the wiki page of 'Sumer' there is a reference to "...Akkadian term šumerû is uncertain....). This means that there is an Akkadian term called Sumeru too. May 4 '19 at 9:17
  • Please use blockquotes. To do the same please add ">" before quotations
    – user6981
    May 4 '19 at 10:11

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