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Note: This is a follow-up of this question.

According to the Vishnu Purana, the Padma Kalpa terminates with the end of one Pararddha or the first half of Brahma's life and the commencement of Svetavaraha Kalpa signifies the beginning of second Pararddha:

When the-three worlds are but one mighty ocean, Brahma, who is one with Narayana, satiate with the demolition of the universe, sleeps upon his serpent-bed--contemplated, the lotus born, by the ascetic inhabitants of the Janaloka--for a night of equal duration with his day; at the close of which he creates anew. Of such days and nights is a year of Brahma composed; and a hundred such years constitute his whole life. One Parárddha, or half his existence, has expired, terminating with the Mahá Kalpa called Pádma. The Kalpa termed Váráha is the first of the second period of Brahmá's existence. (Vishnu Purana, Canto I, Chapter III)

Now, the Srimad Bhagavatam states that it describes the events of the Padma Kalpa:

O King, I shall in due course explain the measurements of time in its gross and subtle features with the specific symptoms of each, but for the present let me explain unto you the Padma-kalpa. (Srimad Bhagavatam Canto II, Chapter X)

However, in the Srimad Bhagavatam, it also states that the first Pararddha or the first half of Brahma's life is over:

The one hundred years of Brahmā’s life are divided into two parts, the first half and the second half. The first half of the duration of Brahmā’s life is already over, and the second half is now current. (Srimad Bhagavatam, Canto III, Chapter XI)

So isn't the Srimad Bhagavatam contradicting the Vishnu Purana? How do we reconcile these verses?

  • if brahma only one? is He not born many many times? – user17294 Jan 28 at 17:03
  • Yes, of course, he's born many times. @Partha – Surya Kanta Bose Chowdhury Feb 22 at 5:30
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The contradiction can be resolved when we understand that another name for Varaha kalpa is Padma Kalpa. A kalpa is called Padma when there is a manifestation of the universe from lotus. Apparently, there was a complete recreation of the universe at the beginning of this kalpa. Sri Viswanath Chakarvarti Thakur gives the explanation in his commentary on SB 3.11.37

"This verse describes the first day in the fifty-first year of Brahma, in the second half of his life. The Padma-kalpa (the previous day) is described in verses such as padmam kalpam atho srnu (SB 2.10.47) and the verses after udaplutam visvam idam (SB 3.8.10), with a description of a lotus in one ocean of water. The appearance of one Brahma with no one else present is described in vilokya tatranyad apasyamanah (SB 2.9.7) Thus, Brahma did not see Sanaka and the others who live for the whole of Brahma’s life.

Because of these verses, some have another explanation for the Padma-kalpa.

They say that Mahaloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka and Satyloka, which remain without being destroyed until the end of the second half of his life, become covered with water at the end of the first half of Brahma’s life (thus no planets or the great sages are not visible to Brahma on the first day of his fifty-first year). Those who live till the end of Brahma’s life on those planets enter into Narayana along with Brahma during the night at the end of the first half of Brahma’s life. They say that the first day in the second half of Brahma’s life (when he appears on a lotus and sees no planets and no sages) is called Sveta-varaha or Padma- kalpa. As well, in the next chapter it will be explained that Sanaka, Marici and others appeared from Brahma. This is similar to the Brahma-kalpa. That day cannot be called Brahma-kalpa since it comes after this description of the Padma-kalpa.

In verse 36 of this chapter, describing Padma-kalpa, the word ante can mean “at the end of the first day.” Thus the second day after Brahma’s birth could be called the Padma-kalpa. Ayam tu in this verse then means that the Padma-kalpa is also a name for the Varaha- kalpa, the first day in the second half of Brahma’s life. It is called Varaha-kalpa because Varaha avatara appeared during that kalpa. The word api after dvitiyasya indicates that even the first kalpa of Brahma’s life is called the Padma-kalpa. This is the explanation of some persons. "

In summary, this kalpa can also be called Padma because Sri Brahma recreated the planetary systems from the lotus in this kalpa. Thus, Vishnu Purana and Bhagavata Purana are in agreement with each other.

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